Monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes: A review perspective

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<ul><li><p>Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 3141 3155</p><p>Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</p><p>Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews</p><p>j ourna l h o mepage: www.elsev ier .com/ locate / rser</p><p>Monito</p><p>Michael Aalborg Univer</p><p>a r t i c l</p><p>Article history:Received 21 DAccepted 11 A</p><p>Keywords:Anaerobic digeProcess monitProcess Analytical Technologies (PAT)Process samplingTheory of Sampling (TOS)</p><p>rapidly in the near future.The complex, biologically mediated AD events are far from being understood in detail however. Despite</p><p>decade-long serious academic and industrial research efforts, only a few general rules have been formu-lated with respect to assessing the state of the process from chemical measurements. Conservative reactordesigns have dampened the motivation for employing new technologies, which also constitutes one of the</p><p>Contents</p><p>1. Introd1.1. 1.2. 1.3. </p><p>2. Anaer2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. </p><p> CorresponE-mail add</p><p>1364-0321/$ doi:10.1016/j.main barriers for successful upgrade of the AD sector with modern process monitoring instrumentation.Recent advances in Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) allow complex bioconversion processes to</p><p>be monitored and deciphered using e.g. spectroscopic and electrochemical measurement principles. Incombination with chemometric multivariate data analysis these emerging process monitoring modalitiescarry the potential to bring AD process monitoring and control to a new level of reliability and effective-ness. It is shown, how proper involvement of process sampling understanding, Theory of Sampling (TOS),constitutes a critical success factor.</p><p>We survey the more recent trends within the eld of AD monitoring and the powerfulPAT/TOS/chemometrics application potential is highlighted. The Danish co-digestion concept, which inte-grates utilisation of agricultural manure, biomass and industrial organic waste, is used as a case study.We present a rst foray for the next research and development perspectives and directions for the ADbioconversion sector.</p><p> 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p><p>uction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3142Major applications of anaerobic digestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3142Bio-economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3142Resources for bio-renery concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143</p><p>obic digestion in Denmark: a case study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143Mobilisation of grassroot movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143Current share of energy production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143The farm-scale biogas plant concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143The centralised biogas plant concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143Main products of centralised AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143Veterinarian benets of AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3144Fertilising benets of AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3144Socio-economic benets and externalities of AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3144Issues yet to be resolved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3144</p><p>ding author. Tel.: +45 9940 9940; fax: +45 9940 7710.resses: mima@bio.aau.dk, michael.madsen@maskau.dk (M. Madsen).</p><p> see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.rser.2011.04.026ring of anaerobic digestion processes: A review perspective</p><p>Madsen , Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen, Kim H. Esbensensity, ACABS Research Group, Niels Bohrs Vej 8, DK-6700 Esbjerg, Denmark</p><p> e i n f o</p><p>ecember 2010pril 2011</p><p>stion (AD)oring</p><p>a b s t r a c t</p><p>The versatility of anaerobic digestion (AD) as an effective technology for solving central challenges metin applied biotechnological industry and society has been documented in numerous publications overthe past many decades. Reduction of sludge volume generated from wastewater treatment processes,sanitation of industrial organic waste, and benets from degassing of manure are a few of the mostimportant applications. Especially, renewable energy production, integrated biorening concepts, andadvanced waste handling are delineated as the major market players for AD that likely will expand</p></li><li><p>3142 M. Madsen et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 3141 3155</p><p>3. AD process theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31443.1. General concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31443.2. VFA as process indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31453.3. VFA quantication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3145</p><p>4. Conclusions and recommendations from previous reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. Review of the modern AD process monitoring potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>5.1. Monitoring of bioprocesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2. Principles of operation for reviewed monitoring techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. Fluorescence spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.4. Infrared spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.5. Near infrared spectroscopy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6. Ultraviolet and visual spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7. Electronic tongues and noses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.8. Gas chromatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.9. Titration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.10. Microwaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.11. Acoustic chemometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>6. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.1. Quantication of relevant process parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2. Emerging PAT modality: Raman spectroscopy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3. Sensor interfacing issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4. Sampling issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5. Uni-variate versus multivariate data analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.6. Acoustic chemometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7. Handheld and mobile process analyserspart of the new paradigm? . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. Future research and development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>Nomenclature</p><p>AD anaerobic digestionCOD chemical oxygen demandCSTR Continuously Stirred Tank ReactorFIA ow injection analysisFID ame ionisation detectorFT Fourier transformGC gas chromatographyHPLC high-pressure liquid chromatographyHS-GC head space gas chromatographyIR infraredLCVFA long-chained volatile fatty acidsMS mass spectrometryNIR near infraredOEM original equipment manufacturerPLS partial least squaresPA partial alkalinityPAT process analytical technologiesPCA principal component analysisPC principal componentRMSEP root-mean-square-error of predictionSBR Sequential Batch ReactorSCVFA short-chained volatile fatty acidsTA total alkalinityTKN total Kjeldahl nitrogenTOC total organic carbonTOS Theory of SamplingUV ultravioletVFA volatile fatty acidsVS volatile solids SCVFA sum of short-chained volatile fatty acids</p><p>1. Introdu</p><p>1.1. Major </p><p>Anaerobbiogas prodmany purpter treatmeexpensive treduced byof biogas isorganic parwastewaterenergy proencourage being a stroagriculturaof nutrientsthe organicindustrial w</p><p>1.2. Bio-eco</p><p>Productseveral waynuclear fusisil fuels. Anvia the biortechnologyessential chfossil oil. Apart, but heand organicadvantage to supply bvalue produ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3145. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3147</p><p> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3147. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3147</p><p> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3147 ....</p></li></ul>