monitoring and maintenance of the millau viaduct millau viaduct : normandie viaduct : t moy,max 1,03

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  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Isabelle Metais

    Monitoring and maintenance

    of the Millau Viaduct

    EIFFAGE Infrastructures

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Chirajara bridge in Colombia

    ▪ Part of a concession

    ▪ Key feature of the last sector

    ▪ 446 m Cable stayed bridge

    ▪ 20 M$ project

    ▪ Rebuilding of a new bridge after a

    collapse on existing foundations

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Chirajara bridge in Colombia

    ▪ 446,3 m length

    ▪ 286,3 m central span

    ▪ 150 m opening under the deck

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    - Longueur : 2 460 m

    - Travées : 204 m, 6 x 342 m, 204 m

    - Hauteur des piles : de 78 à 245 m

    - Hauteur des pylônes : 90 m

    The highest multi cable-stayed bridge World record of highest piers

    - Total length: 2 460 m

    - Spans: 204m & 342m

    - Height of the piers: 78m to 245m

    - Height of the pylons: 90m

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    27.75 m

    4.20m

    4.60m

    Concrete

    Steel

    Chosen material

    The high complexity of the site,

    which makes access difficult to

    those areas with steep slopes, has

    led to :

    - Limit the number of piers

    - Restrict their position to the top

    or bottom of the slopes

    Constraints of the site

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Chosen solution

    ▪ Main features :

    ‒ Height of piers and pylons

    ‒ Length of the bridge

    ‒ Repeatability of the structure

    ▪ EIFFAGE’s choice:

    ‒ Prefabrication of the desk

    ▪ Advantages :

    ‒ Quality workmanship of the structures

    (durability)

    ‒ Safety (Works-at-height are limited)

    ‒ Hazards in construction are reduced

    ‒ Speed of execution

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Limestones

    Hettangien & Sinémurien

    Marls

    Toarcien & Domérien

    Limestones

    Bajocien

    North South

    Geotechnical studies

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Chevêtre : 5 dernières

    levées

    Fût double : 90 m

    Précontrainte structurelle de pile

    Précontrainte de clouage du tablier

    Bossages

    Prestressing

    Elevation Cross section

    Two separate

    columns over the

    uppermost of 90 m

    Structural prestressing

    of the pile

    Vertical prestressing

    tendons

    End anchoring

    Two separate

    columns over the

    uppermost of 90 m

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Monitoring objectives

    ▪ The contracting authority has fixed the Viaduct monitoring objectives in the Appendix 10 of the

    contract. Monitoring was divided into 3 phases with different objectives : ‒ construction

    ‒ delivery

    ‒ Operation

    ▪ During construction: ‒ Control of the geometry and movements especially during launching of the deck

    ‒ Control of the viaduct’s behaviour to confirm the compliance with the calculations

    ▪ On completion, the baseline status has been registered as a “zero point” reference for long-term

    monitoring and first stages of maintenance

    ▪ During operational phase, long-term monitoring includes 3 aspects : ‒ Specific parameter controls linked to vehicle and passenger safety

    ‒ Check on ageing of the viaduct

    ‒ Check on structural behaviour

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Accelerometers are located :

    * at the nose of the deck

    * under and above the pylons

    * inside the deck

    Static measurements during launching operations

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Laser receiver is located inside the heads of the piers

    Laser located on the spacer at - 90 m

    2 actions are possible :

    - Send a message by automaton ENERPAC when the vigilance thresholds are exceeded

    - Launching is stopped when the alert thresholds are exceeded

    Seuil d’alerte

    Seuil de vigilance

    P1 / P7  50mm  35mm

    P6  80mm  60mm

    P2 à P5  100mm  80mm

    Responding cells :

    2 circles locate the thresholds between -90 and the head of the pier

    Filters

    Tracking the piers

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    On completion, at delivery Dynamic measurements carried out before

    The opening to traffic

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    Horizontal modes Vertical modes

    Mode shapes of the first modes of the deck

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    ▪ Monitoring of the foundations

    ▪ Tracking of the concrete structures

    ▪ Tracking of the temperature effects

    ▪ Tracking of the wind effects

    ▪ Monitoring of the cable stays

    ▪ Following the geometry of the

    structure

    During operational phase

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    During operational phase

    Location of the boxes acquiring the instrumentation of the viaduct

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Monitoring the foundations

    1. Visual inspection every 6 months since 2007

    2. Measurements of the inclinometers (detection of slippery phenomena)

    3. Measurements of foundation settlements by direct levelling

    4. Measurements of the movements next to P1 and P3 (big backfills)

    5. Measurements of the movements next to P3 and P7 (stitched walls)

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Tracking of the concrete structures

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Tracking of the temperature effects

    Sensors are located on the deck

    ‒ 1 section being equipped, located in span between P2 and P3

    ‒ 27 sensors

    ‒ Temperature readings every 30 min entre 2005 et 2013

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Equivalent Max(Ttab) and Max(Tatm) Equivalent Max(Ttab) and daily solar radiation

    Millau viaduct :

    Normandie viaduct :

    01,100093,003,1 max,max, −+= thatmmoy RTT

    thatmmoy RTT 0017,0max,max, +=

    Study of long-term thermal effects

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Vertical gradient

    Equivalent with daily solar radiation

    Millau : 𝑴𝒂𝒙 𝑮𝑻𝒛 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝑹𝒕𝒉

    Normandie : 𝑴𝒂𝒙 𝑮𝑻𝒛 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟑𝑹𝒕𝒉

    Vertical

    gradient

    ERs 12°C

    assumptions 25°C

    Measurements 18°C

    Eurocode 18°C

    Horizontal gradient

    -5.00

    -4.00

    -3.00

    -2.00

    -1.00

    0.00

    1.00

    2.00

    00:00:00 04:48:00 09:36:00 14:24:00 19:12:00 00:00:00 04:48:00

    te m

    p é

    ra tu

    re (

    °C )

    heure

    Comparaison du gradient horizontal et de la différence de températures aux âmes de rive Est et Ouest 28 juin 2011 (jour de fort gradient horizontal)

    Gradient horizontal équivalent

    T° 4O - 4E

    Horizontal gradient

    ERs neglected

    assumptions neglected

    Measurements 4.6°C

    Eurocode 5°C

    Millau : GTy = 4,6°C

    Normandie : GTy ~ 5°C

    - GTz - GTy

    Comparison Measurements - assumptions

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Study of a strong wind sequence

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Klaus Windstorm (24 January 2009)

    Horizontal Vertical

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    L4S - Efforts dans les haubans

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    8000

    9000

    10000

    11000

    12000

    13000

    14000

    114 134 154 174 194 214 234 254 274

    Avancement (m)

    E ff

    o rt

    ( k N

    )

    10N théorique

    10N mesuré

    8N théorique

    8N mesuré

    6S théorique

    6S mesuré

    11S théorique

    11S mesuré

    pi7 P7

    Comparison of measures and calculated values

    ▪ L4S – Tension in strands of cable stays

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Manual excitation of the first modes

    Anemometer sensor to measure the wind

    speed during testing

    Monitoring of damping in cable stays

  • OSLO BRUKONFERANSEN 2019 04/11/2019

    Conclusion

    How to comply 120 years « useful project life »

    ▪ A good design

    ▪ Tighten some calculation assumptions

    (vertical prestressing of the piers)

    ▪ Establish an technical expert to follow the

    studies,

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