modernizing public transport webinar

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Dario Hidalgo, PhD Aileen Carrigan, MUP December 14 th , 2010 1 Modernizing Public Transport: Lessons Learned from Bus Reforms in Latin America and Asia

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Page 1: Modernizing Public Transport Webinar

Dario Hidalgo, PhDAileen Carrigan, MUP

December 14th, 2010

1

Modernizing Public Transport: Lessons

Learned from Bus Reforms in Latin

America and Asia

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Projects with very different scope

5

One corridor Several corridors

Feeder lines

Route reorganization

of the whole city

No Inte

gra

tion

Inte

gra

tion

Metrobús – Mexico (1, 2)

BRT – Beijing (1, 2, 3)

TransMilenio - Bogotá

Metrovía - Guayaquil

Jakarta (1, 2, 3)

Quito (Trole, Ecovía, North)

Transantiago

Interligado – Sao PauloMegabús - Pereira

RIT - Curitiba

Rea Vaya -Johannesburg

Janmarg – Ahmedabad

Istanbul, Turkey

Optibus – Leon, Guanajuato

Transmetro – Guatemala

Metropolitano - Lima

BRT - Guanzhou

Macrobús - Guadalajara MIO - Cali

Metrolínea- BucaramangaTransmetro - Barranquilla

Reviewed

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All the reviewed systems include BRT

components

6

Exclusive bus

lanes

Large buses with

multiple doors

Stations with prepayment

and level access

Centralized

control

Distinctive

image

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Project focus: structural change in

transit provision, not just to build and

operate BRT corridors

Traditional Operation* Transformed Operation

Private operators or associations

under permits or concessions, with

weak supervision by government

New private companies under

contracts and with strong

supervision of government

(new agencies)

* Not applicable to Beijing, Ahmedabad Sao Paulo

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Traditional Operation* Transformed Operation

Competition in the market

(“guerra del centavo” penny war)

Competition for the market

(bidding process)

or consolidation of existing

operators (direct negotiation with of

new contracts/concessions)

* Not aplicable to Beijing, Ahmedabad, partial in Sao Paulo

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Diverse Sizes

(2009)

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Varied throughput

(2009)

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Commercial speed

(2009)

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Operational productivity

(2009)

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Capital productivity

(2009)

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Capital Cost

(2009)

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User Fares

(2009)

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Common issues in Planning

• Insufficient funding for studies and design

• Lack of experience with BRT (staff and local consultants)

• Implementation focus, not adequate preparation

• Low user fares – tight financial planning

• Local implementation teams outside existing bureaucracy (latter staff of new agencies)

19

Trinary Road System-Curitiba

Trolebús en el Centro Histórico - Quito

Fo

to: U

RB

S,

20

00

Fo

to: D

. H

ida

lgo

20

06

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Decision Processes

• Political will and leadership at the top level fast implementation

• Need for regulatory and instutional changes (creation of new agencies)

• Funding from external or new sources

20

Northwestern Terminal – León, México

Metrobús Insurgentes – México DF

Fo

to: D

. H

ida

lgo

20

06

Fo

to: D

. H

ida

lgo

20

06

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Rushed implementation – most difficulties

solved within few weeks

• Incomplete infrastructure and fare collection and control systems

• Lack of training for bus operators

• Insufficient user education

• Public protests

21

Fo

to: J. E

rnst 2

00

5

Jakarta

Beijing BRT

Fo

to: D

. H

ida

lgo

20

06

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Common operational concerns

• High occupancy levels

• Long waiting times for feeder services

• Road surface maintenance

• Pick-pocketing

22

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The main structural problems are institutional

or regulatory

• User fares are defined after political negotiations – absence of

operational subsidies - financial stress

• Expansion is difficult after initial lines

– Opposition from existing operators

– Lack of political priority and funding for infrastructure

• Lack of dedicated funding for maintenance

• Lack of integration with normal bus services (except Santiago, which

suffered from profound planning and implementation difficulties)

23

Fotos: D. Hidalgo 2006, 2007

Megabús – Pereira Metrovía - Guayaquil Transantiago - Santiago

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Despite issues, most systems have been

succesful

• Quality and performance are better than in the systems they replaced

• Main achievement: travel time reduction and increased safety and reliability

– Efficiency gains resulted in reduced energy consumption and decreased pollutant emissions

– Improved urban environments

24

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Filename/RPS Number

What Went Wrong

• Rushed implementation – several components

incomplete

• Very tight financial planning – non technical user fares

• Very high occupancy levels (160 pax/bus standard for

articulated buses is not accepted by the users)

• Early deterioriation of infrastructure (lack of road surface

reinforcement or problems in design/construction)

• Implementation of fare collection systems requires

longer time tables and very tight supervision

• Insufficient user education

Common problems

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Recommendations

• Planning

• Decision process

• Type of implementation

• Implementation process

• Design and operation

• Structural issues

• Further studies

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¡Muchas Gracias!