modern world history chapter 10 age of democracy and progress

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Modern World History Chapter 10 Age of Democracy and Progress

Modern World HistoryChapter 10Age of Democracy and ProgressSection 1Democratic Reform and Activism

Political Reforms in Great Britain

Britain had a constitutional monarchyThe British Parliament consisted of two houses (House of Lords with inherited or appointed seats and House of Commons with members elected)Beginning in 1830 protests began to give more people the right to vote (particularly the new rising middle class)Reform Bill of 1832 eased property requirements for votingChartist Movement popular movement of working class people who also wanted the right to vote (they presented Parliament with a petition called the Peoples Charter to demand this)These demands were initially rejectedGradually over time reforms were passed until by the early 1900s there was universal male suffrageWomen Get the VoteNo country allowed women to vote by 1890 (New Zealand in 1893 and Australia in 1902 were the first)Women organized to gain rights in the 1800s in Great Britain and the U.S.Protests grew more militant in Great Britain (more arrests, public protests, hunger strikes, etc.)Women did not gain the right to vote in either country until after WWI

Anti-SemitismDemocracy also took hold in France as a new constitution was written in 1875 setting up a republicThis republic was threatened by aristocrats who favored a monarchy who used peoples anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish prejudice) to attempt to create a crisis that would allow them to take overDreyfus Affair A Jewish officer in the French army was framed for giving military secrets to the Germans (he was found guilty, though late he was released)Anti-Semitism was strong throughout Europe (especially in Russia where organized campaigns of violence called pogroms were being carried out)Many Jews fled Europe and emigrated to the U.S.Zionism a movement to escape this violence whose goal was the creation of a new homeland for Jews in their historical homeland that was now Palestine

Section 2Self-Rule for British Colonies

Canada Struggles for Self-RuleCanada was originally colonized by the French English settlers arrived in large numbers after the English won the French and Indian WarCanada was divided into two colonies that each elected an assembly and had a royal governorUpper Canada (now Ontario) had an English-speaking majority and was mostly ProtestantLower Canada (now Quebec) had a French-speaking majority and was mostly Roman Catholic and resented British ruleDurham Report called for a reunion of the two colonies into one, and for further British immigration to drown out the French populationDominion of Canada created in 1867 to give Canada a central government; it remained a part of the British Empire but was self-governing in domestic affairs

Early History of AustraliaBritish sea captain James Cook claimed New Zealand and Australia for Great Britain in 1770These territories were occupied by native peoples (Maoris in New Zealand and Aborigines in Australia)Britain began colonizing Australia as a penal colony with convicted criminals in 1788 to relieve their overcrowded prisonsAfter serving their sentences these prisoners could buy land and settle there Free British settlers arrived in large numbers after sheep herding and wool production made living there profitableThe British government encouraged settlement there by offering cheap land

Great Famine in Ireland

The English expanded into Ireland starting back in the 1100s and set up a new governing noble class that slowly took control of the land, impoverishing the Irish peopleThe Irish resented this greatly and fought to restore their independenceIrish peasants depended nearly entirely on the potato as their source of foodIn the 1840s a fungus ruined the potato cropsOut of 8 million people, over 1 million died of starvation and nearly 2 million moved, mostly to the U.S.During the famine English landowners forced the Irish to pay their debts, and even more lost their land

Ireland Struggles for Self-RuleDuring the late 1800s the Irish were divided between Irish nationalists who wanted their independence, and those who sought home rule (local control over internal affairs)The British refused to consider either as the Protestant British living in Ireland (mostly in Northern Ireland) would be outnumbered by the Roman Catholic Irish peopleStill, Parliament voted to give Ireland home rule, but World War I delayed itAfter WWI Irish nationalists formed an underground Irish government and declared themselves independent, with their underground Irish Republican Army to fight on their behalfThe IRA staged attacks against British officials in Ireland, which sparked a war between them and the British governmentIn 1921 Britain agreed to divide Ireland, keeping Northern Ireland, and giving the rest of Ireland home rule (and eventually independence in 1949)

Section 3War and Expansion in the Unites States

Americans Move WestManifest Destiny an idea during the 1800s that the U.S. had the right to expand its territory west all the way to the Pacific OceanWays territory was gained:Louisiana PurchaseTexas gaining its independence from Mexico and being annexed by the U.S.Mexican WarNative Americans were forced off of their land and pushed westward (Trail of Tears) and eventually onto reservations in the west

Issue of Slavery

The North had a diversified economy with farms and industry that both depended on free workersThe Souths economy was based on cash crop farming that was only profitable with slave laborEnding slave labor would destroy the Southern economy and impoverish the entire regionThis led to disputes over states rights vs. federal government authorityWhen anti-slavery candidate Abraham Lincoln on the 1860 Presidential Election southern states began to secede from the union, and the Civil War started shortly afterwards

End of Civil War and ReconstructionDuring the Civil War President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared all slaves in the Confederacy freeWhen the war ended the U.S. Congress passed 3 amendments related to slavery13th Amendment ended slavery14th Amendment gave citizenship to the former slaves15th Amendment gave them the right to voteReconstruction the time period following the Civil War when the southern states were reintegrated into the U.S.When Northern troops left the South in 1876 laws were passed there that limited the rights of African Americans (made it difficult to vote and set up segregation)

Industrialization ExpandsNeed for mass production and distribution of goods during the Civil War sped up industrializationMassive immigration starting in the 1870s brought workers for factories and for railroad buildingRailroads connected the nation bringing raw materials to factories and finished goods to markets

Section 419th Century Progress

Inventions Make Life Easier

Thomas Edison patented more than 1,000 inventions including the light bulb, phonograph, and motion-picture projectorAlexander Graham Bell telephone Guglielmo Marconi radio German inventors used gasoline to power the first automobileWright Brothers first airplaneHenry Ford used assembly line to mass produce Model T Automobiles

New Ideas in MedicineLouis Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease (bacteria caused disease and infections)Joseph Lister developed antiseptics to kill bacteria in his surgical ward (85% of his patients lived far higher than rates for other doctors)Cities built plumbing and sewer systems to remove waste and prevent spread of diseaseResearchers developed vaccines or cures for deadly diseases like typhus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, and yellow feverLife expectancies gradually rose

New Ideas in Science

Charles Darwin English biologist who developed the theory of evolution that plants and animals evolve over time, and the fittest species survive in a process known as natural selectionSocial Darwinism application of Darwins theories to economics and politics free enterprise was natural selection in economics (justifies why some are rich and some are poor)It was used to justify colonization and racism (some countries are more fit to rule others)Gregor Mendel Austrian whose study of inherited traits began the science of geneticsJohn Dalton English chemist who theorized that all matter is made of atomsDmitri Mendeleev Russian chemist who organized the Periodic Table which lists elements in order of their weightMarie and Pierre Curie discovered missing elements that had radioactivity (stored energy)

Social Sciences Explore BehaviorScientists began to study human society and behavior in the 1800sGlobal expeditions led to more discoveries about ancient civilizations and world culturesThese led to the development of modern social sciences of archaeology, anthropology, and sociologyPsychology was another new social science which was the study of the human mind and individual human behaviorIvan Pavlov studies stimulus/response trained behaviorsSigmund Freud studies how the unconscious mind drives how people think and behave (his studies led to a new type of therapy known as psychoanalysis which helps people deal with psychological conflicts created by suppressed memories, desires, and impulses)

Emergence of Mass Culture

Mass culture the appeal of art, writing, music, movies, and other forms of entertainment to large audiencesIt was caused by: greater public education which meant more people could read books and newspapersimprovements in communication which made publications cheaper and more accessibleinventions of the phonograph and records brought music directly into peoples homesshorter work days and weeks gave people more leisure time to enjoy mass entertainment activitiesInvention of motion-picture projectors led to the rise of filmmaki

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