modern spanish grammar: a practical .modern italian grammar modern italian grammar workbook. modern

Download Modern Spanish Grammar: A Practical .Modern Italian Grammar Modern Italian Grammar Workbook. Modern

Post on 19-Jun-2018

286 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • samueljFile Attachment20007a45coverv05b.jpg

  • ModernSPANISHGrammar

    Second Edition

  • Routledge Modern GrammarsSeries concept and development Sarah Butler

    Other books in the series:

    Modern Spanish Grammar Workbook by Juan Kattn-Ibarra and Irene WilkieISBN 0415120993

    Modern French GrammarModern French Grammar Workbook

    Modern German GrammarModern German Grammar Workbook

    Modern Italian GrammarModern Italian Grammar Workbook

  • ModernSPANISHGrammarA practical guide

    Second Edition

    Juan Kattn-Ibarra

    and Christopher J. Pountain

  • First published 1997

    by Routledge

    Reprinted 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002

    Second edition published 2003

    by Routledge

    11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada

    by Routledge

    29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group

    1997, 2003 Juan Kattn-Ibarra and Christopher J. Pountain

    The authors assert their moral right to be identified as the authors of this work

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or

    utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now

    known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in

    any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing

    from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data

    A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

    ISBN 041527303X (hbk)

    0415273048 (pbk)

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

    To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledgescollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

    ISBN 0-203-42831-5 Master e-book ISBN

    ISBN 0-203-44036-6 (Adobe eReader Format)

  • Contents

    Introduction xviiGlossary xix

    Part A Structures

    1 Pronunciation and spelling 31.1 The Spanish alphabet 31.2 Diphthongs 61.3 Syllabification 61.4 Sinalefa 71.5 The written stress accent 71.6 Punctuation 91.7 Capital letters 10

    2 Gender and gender agreements 112.1 Masculine and feminine 112.2 Plural 112.3 General rules for gender 122.4 Words which are both masculine and feminine 122.5 Nouns which vary in gender 122.6 Agreement classes of adjectives 132.7 The neuter 142.8 Lo 15

    3 Plurals and number agreement 163.1 Plural forms 163.2 Number agreement 17

    4 The articles 194.1 Definite article 194.2 Principal differences between the use of the definite article

    in Spanish and English 204.3 Definite article + que and de 214.4 The indefinite article 22

    v

  • 4.5 Principal differences between the use of the indefinitearticle in Spanish and English 22

    4.6 Use of the plural unos, unas 23

    5 Adjectives 245.1 Shortening of adjectives 245.2 Adjective position 255.3 Adjectives used as nouns 275.4 Adjectives used as adverbs 27

    6 Comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs 286.1 Lack of distinction between more . . . and most . . . 286.2 Syntax of comparative constructions 29

    7 Numbers 307.1 Cardinal numbers 307.2 Ordinal numbers 317.3 Expressions involving numbers 32

    8 Personal pronouns 348.1 Subject pronouns 348.2 Object pronouns 368.3 Reduplicated pronoun structures 39

    9 Demonstratives 409.1 Forms 409.2 Order 409.3 Usage 41

    10 Possessives 4210.1 Forms 4210.2 Usage 43

    11 Relative pronouns 4511.1 Que 4511.2 El que/el cual, etc. 4511.3 Quien(es) 4611.4 Cuyo (adj.) 47

    12 Interrogative and exclamatory forms 4812.1 Cmo?/Cmo! 4812.2 Cul? and Qu?/Qu! 4912.3 Cundo? 5012.4 Cunto?/Cunto! 50

    vi

    CONTENTS

  • 12.5 Dnde?/Adnde? 5012.6 Para qu?/Por qu? 5012.7 Qu tal? 5112.8 Quin(es)? 5112.9 Verdad?, no? 51

    13 Indefinite and negative pronouns and adjectives 5213.1 Alguno and ninguno 5213.2 Alguien and nadie 5213.3 Uno 5313.4 Algo and nada 5313.5 Cualquiera 5313.6 Quienquiera 5413.7 Todo 54

    14 Adverbs 5514.1 Formation of adverbs in -mente 5514.2 Other adverbs 56

    15 Negation 5715.1 No 5715.2 Negative element following the verb 5715.3 Expressions requiring a negative 5815.4 No . . . sino . . . 5815.5 Negation of adjectives 5815.6 Negative questions 58

    16 Verb forms 5916.1 The overall pattern 59

    17 Use of the verb forms 7217.1 Present 7217.2 Perfect 7317.3 Imperfect 7417.4 Preterite 7517.5 Future 7617.6 Future perfect 7717.7 Conditional 7717.8 Conditional perfect 7817.9 Pluperfect 7817.10 Past anterior 7917.11 Infinitive 7917.12 Gerund 8017.13 Imperative 81

    vii

    Contents

  • 18 Use of the subjunctive 8318.1 The subjunctive in complements of verbs and

    verbal expressions 8318.2 The subjunctive after conjunctions 8618.3 The subjunctive in main clauses 91

    19 Sequence of tense 9319.1 In reported (indirect) speech 9319.2 Constructions involving the subjunctive 95

    20 Other forms of the verb and their uses 9620.1 Estar + gerund 9620.2 Ir a + infinitive 9720.3 Llevar + gerund 9720.4 Acabar de + infinitive 9820.5 Ir + gerund 9820.6 Venir + gerund 9820.7 Tener + past participle 98

    21 Modal auxiliary verbs and expressions 9921.1 Poder 9921.2 Deber (de) 10021.3 Saber 10121.4 Querer 10121.5 Tener que 10221.6 Haber de 10221.7 Haber que 102

    22 Ser and estar 10322.1 Ser 10322.2 Estar 105

    23 The reflexive 10823.1 Literal reflexive 10823.2 Reflexives with a conventionalized meaning 10823.3 Reciprocal reflexives 10823.4 Inherently reflexive verbs 10923.5 The reflexive corresponding to an English intransitive 10923.6 Reflexive verbs with prepositional objects 10923.7 The intensifying reflexive 11023.8 The impersonal reflexive 11123.9 The passive reflexive 111

    24 The passive 11224.1 Ser + past participle 112

    viii

    CONTENTS

  • 24.2 Estar + past participle 11324.3 The passive reflexive 11324.4 Use of indefinite subjects 11424.5 Bringing the object to the front of the sentence 115

    25 Prepositions 11625.1 Basic use of prepositions 11625.2 Groups of prepositions 129

    26 Complementation 13126.1 Sentence complementation 13126.2 Infinitive complementation 13226.3 Gerund complementation 140

    27 Conjunctions 14127.1 Coordinating conjunctions 14127.2 Subordinating conjunctions 142

    28 Word order 14528.1 Statements 14528.2 Questions 146

    PART B Functions

    I Social contacts and communication strategies

    29 Making social contacts 15329.1 Greeting someone 15329.2 Conveying greetings 15429.3 Asking people how they are 15529.4 Introducing yourself and others 15629.5 Taking leave 15729.6 Expressing wishes 15929.7 Congratulating someone 16029.8 Using the phone 16129.9 Writing letters 165

    30 Basic strategies for communication 17030.1 Attracting someones attention and responding to a

    call for attention 17030.2 Starting up a conversation 17130.3 Requesting repetition and responding 17230.4 Making sure you understand and are understood 17330.5 Signalling that one understands the speaker 17530.6 Asking how to pronounce or spell a word 175

    ix

    Contents

  • 30.7 Interrupting a speaker 17530.8 Using fillers 17630.9 Changing the subject 17730.10 Formal development of a topic 178

    II Giving and seeking factual information

    31 Asking questions and responding 18531.1 Questions requiring a yes or no answer 18531.2 Questions seeking partial information 18731.3 Polite and indirect questions 18731.4 Negative questions 18831.5 Responding to a question with another question 18831.6 Responding to a yes or no question 189

    32 Negating 19132.1 No + verb/auxiliary 19132.2 Limiting the scope of negation 19232.3 Negating adjectives and nouns 19232.4 Other ways of expressing negation 193

    33 Reporting 19633.1 Direct and indirect speech 19633.2 Indirect speech 19633.3 Reporting statements 19833.4 Reporting questions 20033.5 Reporting yes and no answers 20133.6 Reporting commands and requests 201

    34 Asking and giving personal information 20434.1 Name 20434.2 Nationality and place of origin 20534.3 Marital status 20634.4 Age 20734.5 Date and place of birth 20734.6 Occupation, status or rank, religion and political affiliation 208

    35 Identifying people, places and things 21035.1 Identifying oneself and others 21035.2 Identifying places 21135.3 Identifying things 211

    36 Describing 21236.1 Referring to a subjects nature or identity 212

    x

    CONTENTS

  • 36.2 Enquiring about a subjects nature or identity 21436.3 Describing a state or condition 21536.4 Descriptions involving an unspoken comparison 21536.5 Asking and saying what something is made of 21636.6 Describing events 21636.7 Describing facts or information 21736.8 Describing social manners 21736.9 Describing the weather 217

    37 Making comparisons 21937.1 Comparisons of inequality 21937.2 Comparisons of equality 22237.3 Comparing more than two objects 224

    38 Expressing existence and availability 22638.1 Asking and answering questions regarding existence 22638.2 Describing facilities 22838.3 Expressing availability 228

    39 Expressing location and distance 23039.1 Expressing location 23039.2 Asking and saying where an event will take or took place 23239.3 Indicating precise location 23239.4 Indicating distance 235

    40 Expressing possessive relations 23740.1 Expressing ownership and possession 23740.2 Emphasizing possessive relations 23940.3 Expressing possessive relations involving parts of the

    body and personal effects 24040.4 Asking whose something is 24040.5 Other ways of expressing possession 241

    41 Expressing changes 2