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  • 1 2 3 4 5111 6 7 8 9111 10 1 2 3 4111 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 50 1 2 3111

    Modern ITALIAN Grammar

    Second Edition

  • Routledge Modern Grammars Series concept and development – Sarah Butler

    Other books in series: Modern German Grammar, Second Edition Modern German Grammar Workbook, Second Edition

    Modern Spanish Grammar, Second Edition Modern Spanish Grammar Workbook, Second Edition

    Modern French Grammar, Second Edition Modern French Grammar Workbook, Second Edition

  • Modern ITALIAN Grammar A practical guide

    Second Edition

    Anna Proudfoot

    and Francesco Cardo

    1 2 3 4 5111 6 7 8 9111 10 1 2 3 4111 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 50 1 2 3111

  • First published 1997 by Routledge

    Second edition published 2005 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group

    © 1997, 2005 Anna Proudfoot and Francesco Cardo

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Proudfoot, Anna.

    Modern Italian grammar: a practical guide/Anna Proudfoot and Francesco Cardo. – 2nd ed.

    p. cm. – (Routledge modern grammars) Includes index.

    1. Italian language – Textbooks for foreign speakers – English. 2. Italian language – Grammar. I. Cardo, Francesco, 1951– II. Title. III. Series. PC1129.E5P76 2005 458.2′421 – dc22 2004026099

    ISBN 0–415–33483–7 (hbk) ISBN 0–415–33164–1 (pbk)

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

    “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

  • Contents

    Introduction xiii How to use this book xv Glossary xvii

    Structures

    1 The noun group 3 1.1 What is a noun? 3 1.2 The noun 3 1.3 The article 10 1.4 The adjective 14 1.5 Agreement of noun, article and adjective 20

    2 Verbs 22 2.1 General features of verbs 22 2.2 Verb tables 31 2.3 Moods and tenses of verbs 39

    3 Pronouns 65 3.1 What is a pronoun? 65 3.2 Personal pronouns 65 3.3 Stressed personal pronouns 65 3.4 Unstressed personal pronouns 67 3.5 Relative pronouns 72 3.6 Interrogative pronouns and adjectives 74 3.7 Possessive pronouns and adjectives 75 3.8 Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives 77 3.9 Indefinite pronouns and adjectives 80

    4 Prepositions 84 4.1 What is a preposition? 84 4.2 Combined prepositions and articles 85 4.3 Use of prepositions with nouns 85 4.4 Use of prepositions with verbs 89 4.5 Other prepositions 91

    v

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    Part A

  • 5 Conjunctions 93 5.1 What is a conjunction? 93 5.2 Coordinating conjunctions 93 5.3 Subordinating conjunctions 95

    6 Adverbs 98 6.1 What is an adverb? 98 6.2 Types of adverbs 98 6.3 Comparative and superlative adverbs 101

    7 Numbers 103 7.1 What is a number? 103 7.2 Cardinal numbers 103 7.3 Ordinal numbers 104 7.4 Calculations 106 7.5 Percentages 106 7.6 Collective and approximate numbers 106 7.7 Dates 107 7.8 Time 108 7.9 Weights and measures 108 7.10 Currency 109 7.11 Table of numbers 109

    Functions

    Giving and seeking factual information

    8 Identification: giving personal information 115 8.1 Introduction 115 8.2 Tu or Lei? 115 8.3 Giving different kinds of personal information 116 8.4 Emphasising the person referred to 120 8.5 Eliciting personal information 120 8.6 Dialoghi 121

    9 Specifying people or objects 123 9.1 Introduction 123 9.2 Specifying a known or particular person or object 123 9.3 Specifying category or type 124 9.4 Specifying ownership 125

    10 Describing people or things 127 10.1 Introduction 127 10.2 Physical characteristics 127 10.3 Non-physical attributes 130 10.4 Intensifying the meaning of the adjective 133 10.5 Diminishing the strength of the adjective 134 10.6 Describing a physical state using stare 135 10.7 Dialogo 136

    CONTENTS

    vi

    Part B

    I

  • 11 Talking about existence, presence and availability 137 11.1 Introduction 137 11.2 Talking about existence and/or presence 138 11.3 Talking about occurrence 139 11.4 Talking about presence, attendance and participation

    at an event 141 11.5 Talking about availability 141 11.6 Expressing ‘some, any’ 142 11.7 Specifying the quantity available 144 11.8 Expressing ‘something, anything’, ‘someone, anyone’ 145 11.9 Specifying location, time or frequency 145 11.10 Expressing non-existence or non-availability 146

    12 Talking about the present 149 12.1 Introduction 149 12.2 Describing present situations, actions and events 149 12.3 Expressing ongoing actions 151 12.4 Words and phrases indicating present time 151 12.5 Dialogo 152

    13 Speaking/writing about the past 154 13.1 Introduction 154 13.2 The perfect aspect 155 13.3 Using the passato prossimo 156 13.4 Using the passato remoto 157 13.5 Expressing the imperfect aspect 158 13.6 Combinations of perfect and imperfect aspect 161 13.7 Present tense expressing past 165 13.8 Indicators of time 165

    14 Talking about the future 167 14.1 Introduction 167 14.2 Using the future tense 167 14.3 Using the present tense 167 14.4 Expressing the immediate or very near future 168 14.5 Expressing the English ‘going to’ 168 14.6 The ‘past in the future’ 169 14.7 The future seen from the past 169 14.8 Some expressions of time in the future 170 14.9 Expressing intention and future plans 172

    15 Asking questions 173 15.1 Introduction 173 15.2 Asking a question using interrogative intonation 173 15.3 Asking a question using interrogative words 173 15.4 Dialogo 176

    16 Negative sentences 178 16.1 Introduction 178 16.2 Reinforcing a negative statement 178 16.3 Expressing negation and time non . . . più, non . . . mai 179

    Contents

    vii

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  • 16.4 Expressing negation using né . . . né 179 16.5 Expressing negation using niente, nulla 180 16.6 Expressing negation using the adjective nessun/o/a 180 16.7 Expressing negation using the pronoun nessuno/a 181 16.8 Reinforcing negation 181

    17 Comparisons and degrees of intensity 183 17.1 Introduction 183 17.2 Using comparative adjectives and adverbs 183 17.3 Expressing ‘than’ 184 17.4 Expressing ‘which’ 186 17.5 Expressing different degrees of intensity 186

    18 Referring to objects and people 188 18.1 Introduction 188 18.2 Using a pronoun to refer back 188 18.3 Using a pronoun: referring to the subject of an action 188 18.4 Using a pronoun: referring to someone other than

    the subject 188 18.5 Referring to someone or something using questo, quello 192 18.6 Using indefinites to refer to ‘someone/something’ 192 18.7 Referring to something or someone mentioned 193 18.8 Referring to what has been said or will be said 193

    19 Focusing on the action 194 19.1 Introduction 194 19.2 Focusing on the action using the passive 194 19.3 Situations when the passive is not used 197 19.4 Focusing on the action using si passivante (passive form

    with si) 199 19.5 Si impersonale (impersonal si) 200 19.6 Focusing on the object of the action 200

    Actions affecting ourselves and others

    20 Social interactions 203 20.1 Greeting, welcoming 203 20.2 Introducing oneself and others 204 20.3 Saying goodbye 205 20.4 Wishes 206 20.5 Expressing and receiving thanks, appreciation 206 20.6 Compliments 207 20.7 Making and accepting excuses, apologies 207 20.8 Expressing commiseration, sympathy 208 20.9 Using titles, salutations 208

    21 Getting other people to do things 211 21.1 Introduction 211 21.2 Giving orders and commands 211 21.3 Making negative requests and commands 213

    CONTENTS

    viii

    II

  • 21.4 Written instructions and recipes 213 21.5 Asking someone to do something 216 21.6 Giving an order using ‘command’ verbs 217 21.7 Far fare, lasciar fare construction 217 21.8 Using persuasion 218 21.9 Monologo 219

    22 Permission and possibility 221 22.1 Asking or granting permission 221 22.2 Denying permission 222 22.3 Speaking about the ability or opportunity to do something 222 22.4 Making a request 223

    23 Expressing need, obligation or desire 225 23.1 Need or want 225 23.2 Expressing wants 225 23.3 Expressing needs 227

    24 Suggesting, proposing, advising and recommending 229 24.1 Giving advice 229 24.2 Making or receiving a suggestion 230 24.3 More expressions of advising or suggesting 232 24.4 Advising someone not to do something, giving a warning 233 24.5 Asking for advice 233 24.6 Other ways of making suggestions 234

    Expressing emotions, feelings, attitudes and opinions

    25 Expressing emotions: positive, ne