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He could visit the Times Square.
He may exercise around the Central Park.
He might experience the main tourist attraction in New York.
There is an official language in this country, English, so Paco
can communicate with American people without any problem.
He might go up to the Empire State Building.
Paco could take buses on the Grand Central Station.
He should go to the Statue of Liberty.
Can he take his camera? Yes, he can.
Paco may not take photos in the galleries.
MODALS TO EXPRESS ABILITY AND PERMISSION
TYPE USE MODAL VERBS EXAMPLE
1 Expressing ability CAN Mary can drive.
He can speak English.2 Asking for permission MAY, CAN, COULD Could I borrow your pen?
Can he take his camera?3 Giving permission MAY, CAN You can use my phone.
You can take photos here.4 Refusing permission,
prohibitionCANT, MAY NOT You may not talk in the exam.
You cant take photos in the galleries.
5 requests CAN, COULD Can you pass me the salt?
Could you turn on the fans, please?
MAY, COULD AND CAN
May is a polite modal verb used to ask for permission.
May I have another piece of cake?
Could is also used to ask for permission. It is less formal than using may.
Could I bring a friend to the party?
Can is the least formal of the modal verbs used to ask permission.
Can I wear shorts?
Look at the following sentences and write which type you think it is. Then, use of
the modal verbs in the brackets to fill in the gaps. Type
1. You (may/could) .. leave now if you wish.
2. (Could/May) .. you open the window a bit, please?
3. (May/Can) .. you play the piano?
4. Listen, please. You (may not/could not) .. speak during this
5. You (cant/might) .. smoke on the bus.
6. (Cant/May) .. I make a call on you cell, please?
7. Do you know if Mark (can/may) .. sing?
8. (Cant/May) .. I sit here, please?
9. Caroline, your friends (can/could) .. stay the night if they want
10. Im sorry but you (cant/may) .. use the computer until after
11. (May/Could) .. you lend me 40 Euros until Monday?
12. Listen, please. Students (may/could) .. study in the library
from 5 to 9 in the evening.
ORDER THE SENTENCES1. go/ May/ to/ I/ mall/ the/ ?2. can/ she/ glass/ another/ have.3. your/ I/ borrow/ bike/ May/ ?4. speak/ Fred/ please/ I/ Could/ with/ ?5. the/ May/ play/ garden/ in/ the/ children/ ?6. may not/ here/ You/ stay.7. you/ Could/ something/ I/ ask/?8. make/ you/ some/ Could/ coffee/ ?9. come/ May/ in/ I/ ?10. a question/ I/ Can/ you/ ask/ ?
Imagine you are visiting a museum. You want to
know the rules about taking photos
You need to make a phone call, but your mobile is
out of battery. You enter a bar and say
Your pencils tip has broken. You ask your partner
for hi/her sharpener
What questions can you make?
MATCH AND STICKA: Mary passed her
A: Ill work 12 hours tomorrow.
B: He might/may/could come later.
A: John hasnt arrived
A: Its raining really
B: They cant have a
B: She must be very
B: You may be exhausted.
B: She must be in love.A: She cant concentrate.
B: That cant be healthy if you eat them every day.
A: All he eats is bread and chocolates.
MODALS TO EXPRESS SPECULATION
TYPE USE MODAL VERBS EXAMPLE
1 To express possibilities for the
MAY, MIGHT, COULD It may rain
2 To express certainty CANT, COULDNT,
She cant be Irish
3 For possible explanations MAY, MIGHT, COULD She could be
Look at the following phrases and write in which type you think they are. Then use one of
the modal verbs in brackets to fill in the gaps.Type
1. They (may/must) .. be away for the weekend but Im not sure.
2. He (can/could) .. be French, if you listen to his accent.
3. They (cant/may) .. still be outside!
4. With luck, tomorrow (cant/could) .. be a sunny day.
5. You (can/might) .. be right but Im going to check anyway.
6. The exam (cant/might) .. be easy. You never know.
7. It (may/cant) .. be true about a dinosaur living in Lake Tel in the
Congo. Its impossible!
8. Dave says Sheylas from the United States but I think she (can/might) ..
be from Canada.
9. I (cant/might) .. go to the party but Im not sure yet.
10. This (must/could) .. be the right answer but well have to check with the
teacher to be sure.
11. She (cant/could) .. steal things from shops. Shes rich and famous.
12. I really think Real Madrid (cant/could) .. lose the final of the Kings Cup.
13. Shes been practicing 10 hours a day for 3 weeks. She (could/must) .. be
14. Nobodys answering. They (cant/must) .. be out.
Look at the pictures and writeideas that you can speculate
LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND COMPLETE
He has a terrible toothache, he should ____________
I failed the exam, I must__________.
go to the dentist.
Moral obligationMoral obligation
If you want to lose weight, youshould ____________
You ought to _______ or youll getill.
You have to _______________ Thats the rule.
eat less fat.
be quiet in class.
She doesnt have to _________ Its Sunday.
At school, students musnt_______
get up early.
No obligationNo obligation
MODALS TO EXPRESS OBLIGATION
TYPE USE MODALS EXAMPLE NOTES
Have to Maria has to go to Rome. Must expresses
than have to.must You must see a doctor.
She had to see a doctor.
Use only have to
in verb tenses
apart from THE
2 No obligation dont have to He doesnt have to go.
3 Prohibition mustnt Youmustntinsultpeople
shouldYou shouldnt eat so
Ought toYou ought to phone your
Ought to is not
used in the
Decide which type of modal goes with each sentence and then fill in the gaps with
HAVE TO, MUST, SHOULD or OUGHT TO. When you see NEGATIVE, the modal verb
must be in a negative form.
1.If you want to lose weight, you .. eat pasta, potatoes, white bread
or white rice. NEGATIVE
2.Its alright. You .. cometo Murielswedding, if you dont want to.
3. Stupid boy! You .. play with fire! NEGATIVE
4. I havent heard from Eleanor for months. Maybe I .. give her a call.
5.You .. remember your passport. Otherwise they wont let you on
6.The weather forecast says this weekend will be fine. We .. go on a
7. You .. go there on your own. Its extremely dangerous. NEGATIVE
8. You .. come if you dont want to come. NEGATIVE
9. You .. take life so seriously. Relax a bit. NEGATIVE
Orange juice in cartons has no benefits in it at all! You .. make it
1.You .. drink and drive. NEGATIVE
These instructions are difficult to follow. They .. to explain things
LETS PRACTICE1. It's not obligatory to take a tie. You _______ wear one.
A. don't have to B. have to C. shouldn't D. mustn't
2. Slow down or we're going to have an accident. You ______ drive so fast.A. shouldn't B. oughtn't to C. ought to D. should
3. Billy: Are you going to the party?Sally: I'm not sure. I _______ go.A. mustn't B. don't have to C. have to D. might
4. Where's the toilet? I _______ go.
C. have to
5. _______ I use your phone?
B. have to
6. You _________ do your homework on Saturday morning. That way you have the rest of the week-end free.
D. ought to
7. Tomorrow's a holiday. We ________ get up early.A. shouldB. don't have toC. have toD. mustn't
8. You should take an umbrella. It ________ rain.A. mustB. shouldn'tC. mightD. has to
9. If you go sailing, you _______ wear a life jacket. The sea is very dangerous.
A. mustn'tB. shouldC. mightD. must