modals verbs.pdf

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  • PACO

  • LETS WATCH A VIDEO

  • SOME POSSIBILITIES:

    He could visit the Times Square.

    He may exercise around the Central Park.

    He might experience the main tourist attraction in New York.

    There is an official language in this country, English, so Paco

    can communicate with American people without any problem.

    He might go up to the Empire State Building.

    Paco could take buses on the Grand Central Station.

    He should go to the Statue of Liberty.

    Can he take his camera? Yes, he can.

    Paco may not take photos in the galleries.

    MODAL VERBS

    Possibility

    PossibilityPossibility

    PossibilityPossibility

    Ability

    Recommendation

    PermissionProhibition

  • MODALS TO EXPRESS ABILITY AND PERMISSION

    TYPE USE MODAL VERBS EXAMPLE

    1 Expressing ability CAN Mary can drive.

    He can speak English.2 Asking for permission MAY, CAN, COULD Could I borrow your pen?

    Can he take his camera?3 Giving permission MAY, CAN You can use my phone.

    You can take photos here.4 Refusing permission,

    prohibitionCANT, MAY NOT You may not talk in the exam.

    You cant take photos in the galleries.

    5 requests CAN, COULD Can you pass me the salt?

    Could you turn on the fans, please?

  • MAY, COULD AND CAN

    May

    May is a polite modal verb used to ask for permission.

    May I have another piece of cake?

    Could

    Could is also used to ask for permission. It is less formal than using may.

    Could I bring a friend to the party?

    Can

    Can is the least formal of the modal verbs used to ask permission.

    Can I wear shorts?

  • Look at the following sentences and write which type you think it is. Then, use of

    the modal verbs in the brackets to fill in the gaps. Type

    1. You (may/could) .. leave now if you wish.

    2. (Could/May) .. you open the window a bit, please?

    3. (May/Can) .. you play the piano?

    4. Listen, please. You (may not/could not) .. speak during this

    exam.

    5. You (cant/might) .. smoke on the bus.

    6. (Cant/May) .. I make a call on you cell, please?

    7. Do you know if Mark (can/may) .. sing?

    8. (Cant/May) .. I sit here, please?

    9. Caroline, your friends (can/could) .. stay the night if they want

    to.

    10. Im sorry but you (cant/may) .. use the computer until after

    Ive finished.

    11. (May/Could) .. you lend me 40 Euros until Monday?

    12. Listen, please. Students (may/could) .. study in the library

    from 5 to 9 in the evening.

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    may

    could

    can

    may not

    cant

    May

    can

    May

    can

    cant

    Could

    may

    3

    5

    1

    4

    4

    2

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    3

  • ORDER THE SENTENCES1. go/ May/ to/ I/ mall/ the/ ?2. can/ she/ glass/ another/ have.3. your/ I/ borrow/ bike/ May/ ?4. speak/ Fred/ please/ I/ Could/ with/ ?5. the/ May/ play/ garden/ in/ the/ children/ ?6. may not/ here/ You/ stay.7. you/ Could/ something/ I/ ask/?8. make/ you/ some/ Could/ coffee/ ?9. come/ May/ in/ I/ ?10. a question/ I/ Can/ you/ ask/ ?

  • Imagine you are visiting a museum. You want to

    know the rules about taking photos

    You need to make a phone call, but your mobile is

    out of battery. You enter a bar and say

    Your pencils tip has broken. You ask your partner

    for hi/her sharpener

    What questions can you make?

  • MATCH AND STICKA: Mary passed her

    exam.

    A: Ill work 12 hours tomorrow.

    B: He might/may/could come later.

    A: John hasnt arrived

    yet.

    A: Its raining really

    heavily.

    B: They cant have a

    picnic.

    B: She must be very

    pleasant.

    B: You may be exhausted.

    B: She must be in love.A: She cant concentrate.

    B: That cant be healthy if you eat them every day.

    A: All he eats is bread and chocolates.

    Probability

    Improbability

    Possibility

    Possibility

    Explanation

    Probability

  • MODALS TO EXPRESS SPECULATION

    TYPE USE MODAL VERBS EXAMPLE

    1 To express possibilities for the

    future

    MAY, MIGHT, COULD It may rain

    tomorrow

    2 To express certainty CANT, COULDNT,

    MUST

    She cant be Irish

    3 For possible explanations MAY, MIGHT, COULD She could be

    Scottish

  • LE

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    Look at the following phrases and write in which type you think they are. Then use one of

    the modal verbs in brackets to fill in the gaps.Type

    1. They (may/must) .. be away for the weekend but Im not sure.

    2. He (can/could) .. be French, if you listen to his accent.

    3. They (cant/may) .. still be outside!

    4. With luck, tomorrow (cant/could) .. be a sunny day.

    5. You (can/might) .. be right but Im going to check anyway.

    6. The exam (cant/might) .. be easy. You never know.

    7. It (may/cant) .. be true about a dinosaur living in Lake Tel in the

    Congo. Its impossible!

    8. Dave says Sheylas from the United States but I think she (can/might) ..

    be from Canada.

    9. I (cant/might) .. go to the party but Im not sure yet.

    10. This (must/could) .. be the right answer but well have to check with the

    teacher to be sure.

    11. She (cant/could) .. steal things from shops. Shes rich and famous.

    12. I really think Real Madrid (cant/could) .. lose the final of the Kings Cup.

    13. Shes been practicing 10 hours a day for 3 weeks. She (could/must) .. be

    exhausted.

    14. Nobodys answering. They (cant/must) .. be out.

  • Look at the pictures and writeideas that you can speculate

  • LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND COMPLETE

    He has a terrible toothache, he should ____________

    I failed the exam, I must__________.

    go to the dentist.

    RecommendationRecommendation

    study hard

    Moral obligationMoral obligation

  • If you want to lose weight, youshould ____________

    You ought to _______ or youll getill.

    You have to _______________ Thats the rule.

    eat less fat.

    RecommendationRecommendation

    be quiet in class.

    RecommendationRecommendation

    relax

    ObligationObligation

  • She doesnt have to _________ Its Sunday.

    At school, students musnt_______

    get up early.

    No obligationNo obligation

    smoke.

    ProhibitionProhibition

  • MODALS TO EXPRESS OBLIGATION

    TYPE USE MODALS EXAMPLE NOTES

    1

    Obligation

    Have to Maria has to go to Rome. Must expresses

    more urgency

    than have to.must You must see a doctor.

    She had to see a doctor.

    Use only have to

    in verb tenses

    apart from THE

    PRESENT SIMPLE

    2 No obligation dont have to He doesnt have to go.

    3 Prohibition mustnt Youmustntinsultpeople

    4

    recommendat

    ion

    shouldYou shouldnt eat so

    quickly.

    Ought toYou ought to phone your

    mother.

    Ought to is not

    used in the

    negative.

  • LE

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    Decide which type of modal goes with each sentence and then fill in the gaps with

    HAVE TO, MUST, SHOULD or OUGHT TO. When you see NEGATIVE, the modal verb

    must be in a negative form.

    Type

    1.If you want to lose weight, you .. eat pasta, potatoes, white bread

    or white rice. NEGATIVE

    2.Its alright. You .. cometo Murielswedding, if you dont want to.

    NEGATIVE

    3. Stupid boy! You .. play with fire! NEGATIVE

    4. I havent heard from Eleanor for months. Maybe I .. give her a call.

    5.You .. remember your passport. Otherwise they wont let you on

    the plane.

    6.The weather forecast says this weekend will be fine. We .. go on a

    picnic.

    7. You .. go there on your own. Its extremely dangerous. NEGATIVE

    8. You .. come if you dont want to come. NEGATIVE

    9. You .. take life so seriously. Relax a bit. NEGATIVE

    1

    0.

    Orange juice in cartons has no benefits in it at all! You .. make it

    yourself.

    1

    1.You .. drink and drive. NEGATIVE

    1

    2.

    These instructions are difficult to follow. They .. to explain things

    better.

  • LETS PRACTICE1. It's not obligatory to take a tie. You _______ wear one.

    A. don't have to B. have to C. shouldn't D. mustn't

    2. Slow down or we're going to have an accident. You ______ drive so fast.A. shouldn't B. oughtn't to C. ought to D. should

    3. Billy: Are you going to the party?Sally: I'm not sure. I _______ go.A. mustn't B. don't have to C. have to D. might

  • 4. Where's the toilet? I _______ go.

    A. might

    B. should

    C. have to

    D. mustn't

    5. _______ I use your phone?

    A. should

    B. have to

    C. may

    D. must

    6. You _________ do your homework on Saturday morning. That way you have the rest of the week-end free.

    A. must

    B. might

    C. shouldn't

    D. ought to

    LETS PRACTICE

  • 7. Tomorrow's a holiday. We ________ get up early.A. shouldB. don't have toC. have toD. mustn't

    8. You should take an umbrella. It ________ rain.A. mustB. shouldn'tC. mightD. has to

    9. If you go sailing, you _______ wear a life jacket. The sea is very dangerous.

    A. mustn'tB. shouldC. mightD. must

    LETS PRA