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  1. 1. Mobile Satellite Communication Networks Mobile Satellite Communication Networks. Ray E. Sheriff and Y. Fun Hu Copyright q 2001 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBNs: 0-471-72047-X (Hardback); 0-470-845562 (Electronic)
  2. 2. Mobile Satellite Communication Networks Ray E. Sheriff and Y. Fun Hu Both of University of Bradford, UK JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD
  3. 3. Copyright q 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Bafns Lane, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 1UD, England National 01243 779777 International (+44) 1243 779777 e-mail (for orders and customer service enquiries): cs-books@wiley.co.uk Visit our Home Page on http://www.wiley.co.uk or http://www.wiley.com All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, W1P 9HE, UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied speci- cally for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the publication. Neither the author(s) nor John Wiley & Sons Ltd accept any responsibility or liability for loss or damage occasioned to any person or property through using the material, instructions, methods or ideas contained herein, or acting or refraining from acting as a result of such use. The author(s) and Publisher expressly disclaim all implied warranties, including merchantability of tness for any particular purpose. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. In all instances where John Wiley & Sons is aware of a claim, the product names appear in initial capital or capital letters. Readers, however, should contact the appropriate companies for more complete informa- tion regarding trademarks and registration. Other Wiley Editorial Ofces John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH Pappelallee 3, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 33 Park Road, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia John Wiley & Sons (Canada) Ltd, 22 Worcester Road Rexdale, Ontario, M9W 1L1, Canada John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop #02-01, Jin Xing Distripark, Singapore 129809 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0471 72047 X Typeset in Times by Deerpark Publishing Services Ltd, Shannon, Ireland. Printed and bound in Great Britain by T. J. International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall. This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry, in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production.
  4. 4. Contents Preface ix Acknowledgements xi Figures xiii Tables xvii 1 Mobile Communication System Evolution 1 1.1 Historical Perspective 1 1.2 Cellular Systems 2 1.2.1 Basic Concepts 2 1.2.2 First-Generation (1G) Systems 6 1.2.3 Second-Generation (2G) Systems 9 1.2.4 Evolved Second-Generation (2G) Systems 21 1.3 Cordless Telephones 26 1.3.1 Background 26 1.3.2 Cordless Telephone-2 (CT-2) 27 1.3.3 Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) 28 1.3.4 Personal Handyphone System (PHS) 30 1.4 Third-Generation (3G) Systems 30 1.4.1 International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) 30 1.4.2 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 35 1.5 Fourth-Generation (4G) Systems 40 References 41 2 Mobile Satellite Systems 43 2.1 Introduction 43 2.1.1 Current Status 43 2.1.2 Network Architecture 44 2.1.3 Operational Frequency 49 2.1.4 Logical Channels 49 2.1.5 Orbital Types 50 2.2 Geostationary Satellite Systems 52 2.2.1 General Characteristics 52 2.2.2 Inmarsat 56 2.2.3 EUTELSAT 61 2.2.4 Asia Cellular Satellite, THURAYA and Other Systems 63 2.3 Little LEO Satellites 65 2.3.1 Regulatory Background 65 2.3.2 ORBCOMMe 66 2.3.3 E-SATe 67
  5. 5. 2.3.4 LEO ONEe 68 2.3.5 Other Systems 68 2.4 Satellite-Personal Communication Networks (S-PCN) 69 2.4.1 General Characteristics 69 2.4.2 IRIDIUMe 70 2.4.3 GLOBALSTARe 71 2.4.4 NEW ICOe 74 2.4.5 CONSTELLATION COMMUNICATIONSe 77 2.4.6 ELLIPSOe 77 References 81 3 Constellation Characteristics and Orbital Parameters 83 3.1 Satellite Motion 83 3.1.1 Historical Context 83 3.1.2 Equation of Satellite Orbit Proof of Keplers First Law 84 3.1.3 Satellite Swept Area per Unit Time Proof of Keplers Second Law 86 3.1.4 The Orbital Period Proof of Keplers Third Law 87 3.1.5 Satellite Velocity 88 3.2 Satellite Location 89 3.2.1 Overview 89 3.2.2 Satellite Parameters 90 3.2.3 Satellite Location in the Orbital Plane 91 3.2.4 Satellite Location with Respect to the Rotating Earth 93 3.2.5 Satellite Location with Respect to the Celestial Sphere 94 3.2.6 Satellite Location with Respect to Satellite-Centred Spherical Co-ordinates 95 3.2.7 Satellite Location with Respect to the Look Angles 97 3.2.8 Geostationary Satellite Location 100 3.3 Orbital Perturbation 101 3.3.1 General Discussion 101 3.3.2 Effects of the Moon and the Sun 101 3.3.3 Effects of the Oblate Earth 103 3.3.4 Atmospheric Drag 104 3.4 Satellite Constellation Design 104 3.4.1 Design Considerations 104 3.4.2 Polar Orbit Constellation 106 3.4.3 Inclined Orbit Constellation 111 References 114 4 Channel Characteristics 115 4.1 Introduction 115 4.2 Land Mobile Channel Characteristics 115 4.2.1 Local Environment 115 4.2.2 Narrowband Channel Models 118 4.2.3 Wideband Channel Models 127 4.3 Aeronautical Link 128 4.4 Maritime Link 129 4.5 Fixed Link 129 4.5.1 Tropospheric Effects 129 4.5.2 Ionospheric Effects 142 References 143 5 Radio Link Design 147 5.1 Introduction 147 5.2 Link Budget Analysis 148 vi Contents
  6. 6. 5.2.1 Purpose 148 5.2.2 Transmission and Reception 148 5.2.3 Noise 152 5.2.4 Satellite Transponder 158 5.3 Modulation 163 5.3.1 Overview 163 5.3.2 Phase Shift Keying 163 5.3.3 Minimum Shift Keying 168 5.3.4 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 168 5.4 Channel Coding 168 5.4.1 Background 168 5.4.2 Block Codes 169 5.4.3 Convolutional Codes 174 5.4.4 Interleaving 180 5.4.5 Concatenated Codes 181 5.4.6 Turbo Codes 181 5.4.7 Automatic Repeat Request Schemes 182 5.5 Multiple Access 184 5.5.1 Purpose 184 5.5.2 FDMA 186 5.5.3 TDMA 186 5.5.4 CDMA 188 5.5.5 Contention Access Schemes 193 5.5.6 S-UMTS/IMT-200 Candidate Solutions 194 References 195 6 Network Procedures 197 6.1 Introduction 197 6.2 Signalling Protocols 198 6.2.1 Overview of GSM Signalling Protocol Architecture 198 6.2.2 S-PCN Interfaces and Signalling Protocol Architecture 199 6.3 Mobility Management 201 6.3.1 Satellite Cells and Satellite Location Areas 201 6.3.2 Location Management 202 6.3.3 Handover Management 220 6.4 Resource Management 224 6.4.1 Objectives 224 6.4.2 Effects of Satellite System Characteristics 225 6.4.3 Effects of Mobility 226 6.4.4 Resource Allocation Strategies 227 6.4.5 Network Operations and Procedures 231 References 243 7 Integrated Terrestrial-Satellite Mobile Networks 247 7.1 Introduction 247 7.2 Integration with PSTN 248 7.2.1 Introduction 248 7.2.2 Gateway Functions and Operations 248 7.2.3 Protocol Architecture of SSN7 249 7.2.4 Access Functions 253 7.3 Integration with GSM 254 7.3.1 Introduction 254 7.3.2 Integration Requirements 256 7.3.3 Integration Scenarios 258 Contents vii
  7. 7. 7.3.4 Impact of Integration Scenarios on the Handover Procedure 261 7.3.5 Impact of Integration Scenarios on the Location Management Procedure 275 7.3.6 Impact of Integration Scenarios on the Call Set-up Procedure 280 7.3.7 The Role of Dual-mode Terminal in Terrestrial/S-PCN Integration 283 7.4 Integration with Third Generation (3G) Networks 287 7.4.1 Concept of Interworking Units 287 7.4.2 The Radio-Dependent and Radio-Independent Concept 288 7.4.3 Satellite Integration with UMTS a UTRAN Approach 289 7.4.4 Satellite Integration with GSM/EDGE a GERAN Approach 290 7.4.5 Conclusion 291 References 291 8 Market Analysis 293 8.1 Introduction 293 8.2 Historical Trends in Mobile Communications 295 8.3 Prospective Satellite Markets 297 8.3.1 Objectives 297 8.3.2 The Role of Satellites 297 8.3.3 Satellite Markets 298 8.3.4 Service Categories 299 8.4 Future Market Forecast 301 8.4.1 Terminal Classes 301 8.4.2 Market Segmentation 302 8.4.3 Sizing the Market 305 8.4.4 Data Sources 308 8.5 Results 309 8.5.1 Tariff 309 8.5.2 Portable Market 310 8.5.3 Mobile Market 311 8.5.4 Total Market 315 8.6 Concluding Remarks 316 References 318 9 Future Developments 319 9.1 Introduction 319 9.2 Super GEOs 320 9.3 Non-Geostationary Satellites 323 9.4 Hybrid Constellations 324 9.5 Mobile-Broadband Satellite Services 325 9.6 Mobile IP 328 9.7 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 330 9.7.1 Overview 330 9.7.2 Congestion Window and Slow Start Threshold 331 9.7.3 Loss Recovery Mechanisms 331 9.7.4 Future Work 332 9.8 Fixed-Mobile Convergence 333 9.9 High Altitude Platforms 334 9.10 Location Based Service Delivery 337 9.11 Concluding Remarks 338 References 339 Appendix A: Acronyms 341 Appendix B: Symbols 351 Index 359 Contentsviii
  8. 8. Preface The last decade proved to be hugely successful for the mobile communications industry, characterised by continued and rapid growth in demand, spurred on by new technological advances and innovative marketing techniques. Of course, when we refer to mobile commu- nications, we tend to implicitly refer to cellular systems, such as GSM. The plight of the mobile-satellite industry over the last decade, although eventful, has, at times, been more akin to an out of control roller coaster ride. From an innovative start, the industry is now in the process of re-assessing, if not re-inventing itself. While niche satellite markets have contin- ued to grow steadily ove

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