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Mobile Robotics Experiments with DaNI Developed By: DR. ROBERT KING COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 4 Experiment 1 LabVIEW and DaNI ........................................................................................... 8 Instructors Notes ........................................................................................................... 8 Goals .............................................................................................................................. 8 Required Components .................................................................................................... 8 Background .................................................................................................................... 9 Experiment 1-1 DaNI Setup ............................................................................................ 9 Establish Communications between DaNI and a host computer using the Hardware Wizard ...........................................................................................................................15 Establish Communications between DaNI and a host without the Hardware Wizard .....28 Creating a Project without the Hardware Wizard ...........................................................33 Experiment 1-2 DaNI Test .............................................................................................37 Experiment 1-3 Evaluate the Operation of an Autonomous Mobile Robot ......................43 Experiment 1-4 Compare Autonomous and Remote Control .........................................45 Experiment 2 Ultrasonic Transducer Characterization ............................................................52 Instructors Notes ..........................................................................................................52 Goal ..............................................................................................................................52 Background ...................................................................................................................52 Experiment 2-1 Characterization with the Roaming VI Graph ........................................52 Experiment 2-2 Introduction to LabVIEW .......................................................................56 Experiment 2-3 Ultrasonic Transducer Characterization ................................................78 Experiment 3 Motor Control ...................................................................................................82 Instructors Notes ..........................................................................................................82 Goal ..............................................................................................................................82 Background ...................................................................................................................82 Experiment 3-1 Open Loop Motor Control .....................................................................82 Experiment 3-2 Closed Loop Motor Control ...................................................................91 Experiment 4 - Kinematics ...................................................................................................... 106 Instructors Notes ........................................................................................................ 106 Goal ............................................................................................................................ 106 Background ................................................................................................................. 106 Experiment 4-1 Turning and Rotating .......................................................................... 106 Experiment 4-2 User Choice: LabVIEW Case Structure and Enum Data Type ............ 111 Experiment 4-3 Using Hierarchical Programming to Drive from Start to Goal .............. 116 Experiment 4-4 Steering Frame ................................................................................... 124 Experiment 4-5 Grouping Steering Frame and Other Data in LabVIEW with Arrays and Clusters ....................................................................................................................... 128 Experiment 4-6 LabVIEW State Machine Architecture to Drive from Start to Goal with the Steering Frame ............................................................................................................ 132 Experiment 5 Perception with PING))).................................................................................. 135 Instructors Notes ........................................................................................................ 136 Goal ............................................................................................................................ 136 Background ................................................................................................................. 136 Experiment 5-1 Calibrating PING)))s Orientation and File IO ...................................... 136 Experiment 5-2 Displaying Perception Data with an XY Graph .................................... 143 Experiment 5-3 Communicating Perception Data to the Host with Network Streams ... 145 Experiment 5-4 Feature Extraction - Identify Edges of an Obstacle ............................. 153 Experiment 5-5 Obstacle Avoidance ............................................................................ 155 Experiment 5-6 Follow a Wall ...................................................................................... 155 Experiment 5-7 Gap feature extraction in the Roaming VI ........................................... 155 Experiment 6 Localization .................................................................................................... 172 Instructors Notes ........................................................................................................ 172 Goal ............................................................................................................................ 172 Background ................................................................................................................. 172 Experiment 6-1 Odometric Localization (Dead Reckoning) .......................................... 172 Experiment 6-2 Localize with Range Data ................................................................... 174 Experiment 6-3 Occupancy grid map ........................................................................... 175 Optional Projects and Competitions ........................................................................................ 176 Obstacle avoidance, Localization and Mapping ........................................................... 176 Obstacle avoidance, Localization, Mapping, and Object Recognition .......................... 176 Obstacle Avoidance, Mapping, and Navigation ............................................................ 176 Hardware Enhancement .............................................................................................. 177 Introduction Robotics and automation are becoming an essential component of engineering and scientific systems and consequently they are very important topics for study by engineering and science students. Furthermore, robotics is built on fundamentals like transducer characterization, motor control, data acquisition, mechanics of drive trains, network communication, computer vision, pattern recognition, kinematics, path planning, and others that are also fundamental to other fields, manufacturing, for instance. Learning these fundamentals can be challenging and fun by doing experiments with a capable mobile robot. The National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW Robotics Kit and LabVIEW provide an active-learning supplement to traditional robotics textbooks and curriculum by providing multiple capabilities in a compact and expandable kit. National Instruments Corporation, located in Austin Texas, has been providing hardware and software that engineers and scientists use to design, prototype, and deploy systems for test, control, and embedded applications since 1976. The company has offices in over 40 countries, and NI open graphical programming software and modular hardware is used by more than 30,000 companies annually. More information is available at http://www.ni.com. The experiments described herein show how to communicate between a host computer and a robot, how robots communicate with sensors to obtain data from the robot's environment, how to implement algorithms for localization and planning in LabVIEW software, how the robot communicates with actuators to control sensor motion and driving motion, how to implement algorithms for controlling sensor and motion. National Instruments LabVIEW is a graphical programming environment used by millions of engineers and scientists to develop sophisticated measurement, test, and control systems using intuitive graphical icons and wires that resemble a flowchart. It facilitates integration with thousands of hardware devices and provides hundreds of built-in libraries for advanced analysis and data visualization all for creating virtual instrumentation. The LabVIEW platform is scalable across multiple targets and operating systems. The NI LabVIEW robotics kit includes DaNI: an assembled robot with frame, wheels, drive train, motors, transducers, computer, and wiring. The hardware can be studied, reverse engineered, and modified by students. However, the major focus of the experiments is robot perception and control fundamentals that are implemented in LabVIEW software developed on a remote host computer and downloaded to the robot