mobile phone & mobile tower radiation hazards
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DESCRIPTIONPresentation by Prof. Girish Kumar -Council for Fair Business Practices (CFBP) organized a talk on "MOBILE PHONE & TOWER RADIATION" on Friday 24th June, 2011 at 06.00 p.m at the Hall of Indian Merchants Chamber, Churchgate, Mumbai 400 020.Good developments seem to be taking place post WHO excepts health problems. First time a person from the industry (Former Regional Director, West and South Operations, Indus Towers Ltd.) excepted that radiation from mobile towers lead to health problems at the event.People were keen to look for solutions for the problem.
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2. Outline of PresentationCell Phones Advantages and DisadvantagesMicrowave Heating PrincipleCell Phone Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)Radiation Pattern of Cell tower AntennaInternational Radiation NormsImplementation of safe radiation normsConclusion 3. Cell phones have several advantages.Cell phones and cell towers haveseveral disadvantages includingelectromagnetic radiation, which hasseveral harmful effects. 4. Electromagnetic RadiationsRadiation emitted from Cell Phones, Cellphone towers, Wi-Fi, TV and FM towers,microwave ovens, etc. are calledElectromagnetic radiations (EMR).EMR causes significant healthhazards on human, animals, birds,plants and environment. 5. India Population 1.2 billionMobile Towers 4.5 lakhsMobile subscribers 800 Millions 6. Microwave radiation effects are classified as:ThermalNon-thermalThe current exposure safety standards aremainly based on the thermal effects, whichare inadequate.Non-thermal effects are several times moreharmful than thermal effects. 7. Microwave Heating Concept4.2 KW (4200 W) of microwave power raisestemperature of 1 Litre of water by 10C in 1 second.In energy absorption term, 4.2 KW-sec microwaveenergy will increase the temperature of 1 Litre by 10C.For example, in a microwave oven, temperature ofone cup of water increases from 300C to 1000C inapprox. 70 seconds with 500W of microwave power.With 1W power (same as output power of cellphones), temp. will increase by 10C in 500 seconds. 8. Sun Heating vs Microwave Heating Outside to insideInside to outsideheatingheatingSkin heating Internal heatingSweating happens Heat trapped 9. Cell Phone - Ear Warming?Have you ever noticed warmsensation in ear after using mobilephone for a long time?Temp. of ear lobes increases by 10C whencell phone is used for approx. 20 minutes. Warm sensation/pain > tinnitus > irreversible hearing lossAll these effects lead to Ear Tumor Tinnitus or Ringxiety- sensation of cell phone ring 10. SAR and Cell phone use time limit A Cell phone transmits 1 to 2 Watts of powerSAR (Specific absorption rate) - Rate at which radiation is absorbedby human body, measured in watts per kg (W/kg).In USA, max. SAR limit for cell phones is 1.6W/Kg which is for6 minutes. It has a safety margin of 3 to 4, so a person should not usecell phone for more than 18 to 24 minutes per day.This information is not given to people in India. 11. Warning from BlackberryPage 18 - Complete manual can be downloaded from -http://docs.blackberry.com/en/smartphone_users/deliverables/11261/BlackBerry_Bold_9700_Smartphone-US.pdf 12. Results of Re-evaluation of Interphone StudyINTERPHONE WHO -10 years, 13 countries, largest (5,117 braintumor cases), $25 million dollars to evaluate risk on brain tumors.Conclusion - no overall risk, but sugges ons of glioma -heavy users & ipsilateral exposuresRe-evaluation - Risk underestimated by at least 25%For every 100 hours of use -26% risk of meningiomaInitial 24% risk of glioma to 55% - regular users aretaken as people who use it for 2hrs/month.Doubled - quadrupled brain tumor risk - heavy users (1/2 hour/day).Children, young adults excluded. New study - Mobi-kids 13. WHO: Cell phone use can increase cancer riskInternational Agency for Research onCancer (IARC), a part of WHO designatescell phones as "possible humancarcinogen [Class 2B]Found evidence of increase in glioma andacoustic neuroma brain cancer for mobile phone 14. Cell Tower Transmit FrequenciesAntennas on Cell tower transmit in the frequencyrange of: 869 - 890 MHz (CDMA) 935 - 960 MHz (GSM900) 1805 1880 MHz (GSM1800) 2110 2170 MHz (3G) 15. Cell Towers Installed in Mumbai 16. Radiation Pattern of Antenna 17. Radiation Pattern of a Cell Tower AntennaPropagation of "main beam from antenna mounted on a tower or roof top People living within 50 to 300 meter radius are in the high radiation zone (dark blue) and are more prone to ill-effects of electromagnetic radiation. 18. CASE STUDYUsha Kiran Building, Worli, MumbaiUsha Kiran BuildingSix cancer cases in consecutive floors (5th, 6 th, 7th, 8th and 10 th)directly facing and at similar height as the mobile phone towers offour telecom companies placed on the roof of opposite building. 19. 250,000 Swedes allergic to mobile phone radiationAround 230,000 - 290,000 Swedish men andwomen - Out of a population of 9,000,000 are nowelectro hypersensitive (EHS)One of the first countries where mobiletechnology was introduced (approx. 15 years ago). 20. Power Density CalculationsPower density Pd at a distance R is given by Pt Gt Pd = 2 4R Watt/m2Pt = Transmitter power in WattsGt = Gain of transmitting antennaR = Distance from the antenna in meters 21. Power Density at distance from cell towerFor Pt = 20 W, Gt = 17 dB = 50 Distance RPdPd (m) (W/m2)(W/m2)179.6 79,600,00038.848,840,00053.183,180,000 100.796796,000 50 0.0318 31,800 100 0.008 7,960 5000.000318318Above values are for a single carrier and a single operator. 22. Power Density for multiple carriers and operatorsFor Pt = 20 W, Gt = 17 dB = 50No. of carriers = 5, No. of operators = 3Distance RPdPd(m) (W/m2)(W/m2) 1 1194.0 1194,000,000 3 126.0126,000,000 547.7 47,700,0001011.9411,940,000500.477 477,000 100 0.1194 119,400 5000.00477 4,770For 5 carriers and 3 operators on the same roof topor tower, radiation level is extremely high. 23. FCC Guidelines Human exposure to RF fields Cellular cell site towers are typically 50-200 feet high. Majority of cellular or PCS cell sites in urban and suburban areas operate at an ERP of 100 watts per channel or less. An ERP of 100 watts corresponds to an actual radiated power of 5-10 watts, depending on the type of antenna used. In urban areas, cell sites commonly emit an ERP of 10 watts per channel or less.http://www.fcc.gov/guides/human-exposure-rf-fields-guidelines-cellular-and-pcs-sitesIn INDIA, cell sites transmit 100s of Watts of powerwith antenna gain of 50, so ERP = 5000 Watts 24. GSM cell tower power density levels percentiles(Haumann T. et al, Germany) 25. Other Standards and GuidelinesBioInitiative Report 2007 (610 pages)1000 W/m2 for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure.100 W/m2 for indoor, cumulative RF exposure.Building Biology Institute, Germanya. 1000 W/m2 - extreme concern 26. ICNIRP GuidelinesIndia adopts ICNIRP guideline for Power density (Pd)= Frequency /200, frequency is in MHzFor GSM900 (935-960 MHz),Pd = 4.7W/m2 andGSM1800 (1810-1880 MHz), Pd = 9.2W/m2.ICNIRP has given following disclosure:ICNIRP is only intended to protect the public againstshort term gross heating effects and NOT againstbiological effects such as cancer and genetic damagefrom long term low level microwave exposure frommobile phones, masts and many other wireless devices.http://ww.icnirp.de/documents/emfgdl.pdf 27. Power Absorbed by Human BodyMicrowave power absorbed by human body if exposed to so calledsafe radiation level adopted in India, which is f/200, where f is in MHz?ICNIRP Guideline Power received (Pr) by 56" X At 940 MHz, Power human body will bedensity (Pd) is [Pr = Pd x Area] = 6.7534"4.7W/m Watts in one sec. Area = 1.43 m Microwave oven: 700 to 1000 W.In one day, microwave energy With say 60% efficiency, microwaveabsorbed will be [6.75 Watts x power output is say 500 W.60x60x24 sec] = 583.2 KW-sec. This implies that human body can be safely kept in a microwave oven for 1166 secs = 19 minutes per day 28. Power absorbed by human body near cell towerCan one stand in front of a cell tower at 1 mdistance for 4 hours continuously? For Pt = 20 W, Gt = 17 dB = 50At 1m, Power density = 79.6 W/mPower absorbed in one sec = Pd x .7 (for area) = 55.7 WEnergy absorbed in 1 hour = 55.7 x 3600 = 200.5 kW-secFor a human body of weight 60 Kg, liquid content at70% is 42 Litres. So, temp. rise will be 20F.In 4 hours, temp. rise will be 8 0F. Normal body tempwill increase from 98.4 to 106.4 0F. Can one survive? 29. Radiation Measurement at various locationsCumulative Readings including CDMA, GSM 900, and GSM 1800Reading in Readings in Readings inLocationdBmW/m2microW/m2Delhi-Gurgaon Highway - near Toll (3 towers) 0 0.121 70,686Vashi Bridge - after Railway Station-40.0481 28,274Resident 1, 4th Fl: Sergean House Lady w/cancer -60.0304 17,756Resident 2, Opposite roof, Rane Society, Powai -10 0.0127,069 Near Hub mall, Goregaon -10 0.0127,069Gandhi Nagar Over railway bridge-near building -12 0.007634,460Ustav Chowk, Kharghar-120.00763 4,460Vikroli - before Godrej-14 0.004812,814Govandi- Residential towers - near Indian Oil-14 0.004812,814Belapur Flyover, near RBI- CIDCO -160.00304 1,776Vashi Highway near Turbhe-18 0.001921,120Nerul Bridge -200.00121707Vivero pre School (opposite powai lake)-220.000763 446Powai police station -22 0.000763446Rajeev Gandhi nagar-260.000304 177On road near Evita (Hiranandani Building)-280.000192 112D-Mart,Hiranandani, Powai-340.0000481 28IIT Bombay School of Management - Entrance -46 0.00000304 1.78 30. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS 31. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTSMultiple Resonances - localized heating -results in boils, drying up the fluids aroundeyes, brain, joints, heart, abdomen, etc. 32. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Most common complaints:Sleep disruption DizzinessHeadache Palpitations of the heartConcentrationVisual disordersForgetful memory Cardiovascular problemsDepression Buzzing in the headFatigueAltered reflexes Many of these are related tochanges in the electrical activity of the brain 33. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Risk to Children More vulnerableRF penetration - Skull of an adult