MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guide Abridged from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/15
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MLA 2009Formatting and Style GuideAbridged from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/15/
What is MLA?MLA (Modern Language Association) style formatting is often used in various Humanities disciplines
What does MLA regulate?MLA regulates:
Document FormatIn-text citationsWorks Cited (a list of all sources used in the paper)
MLA Update 20092009 changes in MLA:No more Underlining (only use italics)Publication Medium (e.g. Print, Web, etc.)New Abbreviations (e.g. N.p. for no publisher given)
Your Instructor Knows Best#1 Rule for any formatting style:AlwaysFollow your instructorsguidelines
In-Text Citations: the Basics MLA uses parenthetical citations
Parenthetical citations depend on the medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD)
Parenthetical citations also depend on the sources entry on the Works Cited page
Signal word in the text is the first thing in the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page
Author-Page StyleIn-text Example:Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).Corresponding Works Cited Entry:Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
Print Source with AuthorIn-text Example:Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
Print Source with AuthorCorresponding Works Cited Entry:Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. Print.
Formatting Short QuotationsIn-text Examples:According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).
Formatting Long QuotationsIn-text Example:Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)Your prose continues here.
Adding/Omitting WordsIn-text Example for Adding Words:Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).
In-text example for Omitting Words:In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
Works Cited Page: BooksBasic Format:Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
Examples:Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print.Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. New York: St. Martin's, 1997. Print.
A great online resource:www.citationmachine.net
*Welcome to MLA Formatting and Style Guide. This Power Point Presentation is designed to introduce your students to the basics of MLA Formatting and Style. You might want to supplement the presentation with more detailed information available on the OWLs MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guide at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Designer: Ethan SproatBased on slide designs from the OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide powerpoint by Jennifer Liethen Kunka and Elena Lawrick.Contributors: Tony Russell, Alllen Brizee, Jennifer Liethen Kunka, Joe Barbato, Dave Neyhart, Erin E. Karper, Karl Stolley, Kristen Seas, Tony Russell, and Elizabeth Angeli.There are two main manuals for MLA formatting. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. and MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd ed. The Handbook is used mostly by undergraduate and graduate students when writing papers for class. The Style Manual is used by professionals who are formatting documents in preparation for publication (like journal articles, books, book chapters, etc.). Many formatting elements are the same between the two books. This presentation will mostly focus on MLA formatting and style concerns that affect writing research papers.
MLA style is often used in the following disciplines: Humanties, languages, Literature, Linguistics, Philosophy, Communication, Religion, and others.
MLA format provides writers with a uniform format for document layout and documenting sources. Proper MLA style shows that writers are conscientious of the standards of writing in their respective disciplines. Properly documenting sources also ensures that an author is not plagiarizing.*This slide presents three basic areas regulated by MLA students need to be aware ofdocument format, in-text citations, and Works Cited. The following slides provide detailed explanations regarding each area.*In Summer 2008, the Modern Language Association released its third edition of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, which publicly unveiled modifications to MLA Style for the upcoming year. These changes go into effect April 2009 with the release of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). General paper formatting (margins, headings, etc.) and in-text citations will remain the same, but all Works Cited style entries will be different from the 6th edition guidelines. The Purdue OWL will begin listing these changes in all our MLA resources in April 2009. Here are some of the more noteworthy changes:
No More Underlining! Underlining is no more. MLA now recommends italicizing titles of independently published works (books, periodicals, films, etc).
No More URLs! While website entries will still include authors, article names, and website names, when available, MLA no longer requires URLs. Writers are, however, encouraged to provide a URL if the citation information does not lead readers to easily find the source.
Publication Medium. Every entry receives a medium of publication marker. Most entries will be listed as Print or Web, but other possibilities include Performance, DVD, or TV. Most of these markers will appear at the end of entries; however, markers for Web sources are followed by the date of access. New Abbreviations. Many web source entries now require a publisher name, a date of publication, and/or page numbers. When no publisher name appears on the website, write N.p. for no publisher given. When sites omit a date of publication, write n.d. for no date. For online journals that appear only online (no print version) or on databases that do not provide pagination, write n. pag. for no pagination.*Many instructors who require their students to use MLA formatting and citation style have small exceptions to different MLA rules. Every bit of instruction and direction given in this presentation comes with this recommendation: ALWAYS follow the specific instructions given by your instructor.*Basic In-Text Citation Rules
In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.
The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the sources entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page.Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited list.*In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.
The both citations in the in-text examples on this slide, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the information in the corresponding Works Cited entry also shown on this slide. Reduce font size on slide to allow breathing room and space. Also, use a different font for the sample text so instructions look different from the excerpt.*In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author
For Print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the authors last name)