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  • Page 1Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Minto Pyramid Principle

    for writing Equity research reports, Business plan,

    Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Logic in Writing, Thinking, & Problem Solving

  • Page 2Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Contents

    Introduction

    The Pyramid Logic Structure: What is It ?

    The Pyramid Logic Structure: Why Use It ?

    The Pyramid Logic Structure: Application

    Summary

  • Page 3Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Traditionally, Presentations Lack a Cohesive Theme

    Presentations are typically a summary of fact-based analysis

    Major sections of document are not clearly linked together

    Individual slides are not clearly linked to each other or a

    common theme

    Individual slides lack a clearly defined or articulated main point

    or headline

  • Page 4Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Presentations Require a Cohesive Theme To Be Persuasive

    and Inspire Action

    Presentations should make a strong recommendation, provide facts

    and conclusions in support of the desired option, and present the

    rationale for not selecting other alternatives

    Presentations should create client alignment around our

    recommendation and convince the client that action is necessary

    Presentations should convey information to build client knowledge

    regarding the desired outcome

    Presentations should become an integral part of the clients

    decision-making process

  • Page 5Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    A Hypothesis-Driven Logic Flow Will Help Create this

    Cohesive Theme

    Directs the readers

    attention to the question

    that does or should exist in

    his/her mind

    States a hypothesis to

    answer that question

    Develops the context for

    the more detailed

    information to come

    Introduce the

    Hypothesis

    Develop the

    Supporting

    Arguments

    Summarize

    the Argument

    Build the logic to support

    the hypothesis

    Introduce facts

    Draw conclusions

    Draw logical conclusions

    Prove the hypothesis

  • Page 6Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    The Pyramid Logic Structure: What is It ?

  • Page 7Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    This Hypothesis-Driven Logic Flow Is Referred to as the

    Pyramid Logic Structure (PLS)

    * The pyramid will have as many levels as needed to support the logical hierarchy

    Source: Barbara Minto, The Pyramid Principle: Logic in Writing and Thinking (London: Minto

    International, 1996)

  • Page 8Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    In the PLS, Ideas Supporting the Hypothesis Are Related Both

    Vertically and Horizontally

    xxx

  • Page 9Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Vertical Relationships Support the Hypothesis by Establishing

    a Question/Answer Dialogue

    xxx

    Exa

    mp

    le o

    f Ve

    rtic

    ally

    Re

    late

    d I

    de

    as

  • Page 10Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Horizontal Relationships Support the Summary Point by

    Logically Relating Facts or Ideas

    xxx

    Exa

    mp

    le o

    f a

    Ho

    rizo

    nta

    l

    Re

    lati

    on

    sh

    ip

  • Page 11Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    These Horizontal and Vertical Relationships Are Linked in the

    Pyramid Logic Structure

    Summary

    Pyramid logic structure builds

    support for the main

    hypothesis by linking vertical

    and horizontal relationships

    Vertical relationships support

    the main hypothesis or

    summary point

    Horizontal relationships build

    the logic to support each

    summary point

  • Page 12Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    The Pyramid Logic Structure: Why Use It ?

  • Page 13Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    The PLS Complements the Thought Processes of the Human

    MindThe mind instinctively sortsinformation into distinctivepyramidal groupings in orderto comprehend it.

    A grouping of ideas is easierto comprehend if it arrivespresorted into its pyramid.

    Thus, every writtendocument should bedeliberately structured toform a pyramid of ideas.

    The mind attempts to impose order on everything it perceives

    The mind tends to consider any sequence of things that occur together as

    belonging together (this also applies to listening to or reading ideas)

    The pattern for ideas is shaped like a pyramid

    The pyramid states the logic of the relationships of ideas

    Ideas are grouped into a logical hierarchy and the logic of the relationships is shown

    A thought at one level suggests the thoughts below it

    Thoughts at one level suggest the idea above them

    It meets the mind's needs to stop at the "magical" number seven

    There is a limit to the number of ideas a person can comprehend at any one time

    The mind cannot hold more than about seven items in its short-term memory at any one

    time (some can hold as many as nine, others can hold only five -- a convenient number is

    three)

  • Page 14Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    All Mental Processes Utilize Pyramids To Categorize

    InformationThe mind instinctively sortsinformation into distinctivepyramidal groupings in orderto comprehend it.

    A grouping of ideas is easierto comprehend if it arrivespresorted into its pyramid.

    Thus, every writtendocument should bedeliberately structured toform a pyramid of ideas.

    All mental processes (e.g., thinking, remembering, problem-solving) utilize

    the grouping and summarizing process

    Information in the mind can be considered as organized into a large

    conglomeration of related pyramids

    To communicate most easily to another mind, it is best to ensure that the

    message fits somewhere into existing pyramids

    The reader can clearly grasp the reasoning

    The reader can focus more on whether he/she agrees with it than on trying to comprehend it

    The reader can more easily raise logical questions regarding the message

  • Page 15Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    The Effectiveness of Communication Is Improved by the PLS

    xxxThe mind instinctively sortsinformation into distinctivepyramidal groupings in orderto comprehend it.

    A grouping of ideas is easierto comprehend if it arrivespresorted into its pyramid.

    Thus, every writtendocument should bedeliberately structured toform a pyramid of ideas.

    The structure helps the reader to "see" the groupings of ideas the same way

    the author intended, increasing communication effectiveness

    Use of the pyramid structure provides other benefits for the writer and

    reader as well

    Reduces time needed to produce a quality final draft

    Decreases the length of final drafts

    Ensures that the argument and support are complete and logical

  • Page 16Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Thus, the Pyramid Logic Structure Results in a Well -

    Organized, Persuasive Presentation

    xxx

    Pyr

    am

    id L

    ogic

    Str

    uctu

    re

  • Page 17Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    The Pyramid Logic Structure: Application

  • Page 18Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting Assignments

    Using the Pyramid Logic Structure Requires Separating the

    Thinking and Writing Processes

    xxx

    Se

    pa

    rate

    Th

    ink

    ing a

    nd

    Wri

    tin

    g

    Pro

    ce

    sse

    s

    Complete the thinkingand develop logicalstructure

    Write the document Use a format which reflectsthe logical structure andappears professional

  • Page 19Using Minto Pyramid Principle for writing Equity research reports, Business plan, Strategy reports and other consulting

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