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MINHAJ ET TALIBIN

:

MINHAJ ET TALIBINA MANUAL OF

MUHAMMADAN LAWACCORDING TO THE SCHOOL OF

SHAFII

BY

MAHIUDIN ABU ZAKARIA YAHYA IBN SHARIF EN

NAWAWITRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH FROM THE FRENCH EDITIONOFL.

W.

G.

VAN DEN BERGBY

E.

G.

HOWARD

LATE DISTRICT JUDGE, BINGAPOEE

LONDONW. THACKER & 00., 2, OREED LANE, E.C. CALCUTTA & SIMLA: THACKER, SPINK & CO.l!)l-t

K

PKINTED BT WILLIAM CL0WE8 AND SOKS, LIMITED, LOKDON AND BECCLE8.

PKEFATORY NOTEIn the prface to his dition of the Fathel

Karih in 1894, Mr. L. W. C.

Van deu Berg remarked thatover Moslem peoplesis

" from yoar to yearit is

European controlof

extending, so that

unnecessary to insist

upon the importancesmall

of rendering the

two works that fonn the basis

the lgal literature of the School of Shafii accessible, not only to a

number

of Arabie scholars, but also to magistrates

and

political

agents" to

whomnow

that languageasit

is

for the niost part unfamiliar.

This

was twenty years ago it is thought advisable to pubhsh an English translation of the other and larger work referred to, the Minhaj et Talibin, which " occupies the first rank for deciding lgalbeing as truecases."

In the prface to his dition of this treatise, published in 1882

at Batavia

by the Government

of the

Netherlands Indies, Mr.of

Van denis

Berg explained that the French version,dering into English,

which

this

book

a ren-

was not a mre literal translation of the concise Arabie text, which would hve been uninteUigible, but a paraphrase, based partly upon the Moharrer and the Commentary of Mehalli, and partly upon the two principal sixteenth-century commentaries on the Minhaj et Talibin that is to say, the TohJat-el-Mohtaj and the Niliayat el Mohtaj. It is not always possible to dcide a question by rfrence

to the

Minhaj alone

;

and

in

such a case abe

Muhammadan

jurist

fakih, mufti or kadi, as it

may

bas

alim,whole

recourse principally to the

Tohfa and the Nihaya, which Dr. Th. Juynboll, in his Handhuch desislamischen Gesetzes, 1910, calls

"the two standard worksIt is

in the

modem

Fikh-literature of the School of Shafii."

hoped, therefore,

that the prsent publicationdirection

may

be of some practical utility in the

above indicated, and at the same time not without interestcomparative jurisprudence.

to the student of

CONTENTSBooK1.

PuRiTY (Tahara). Chafter I. General provisionsII. III.

page

Causes of slight corporal impurity

Ablution

IV. Moistening of foot-gear

...... .. .

...

1

357

V. BathingVI. Things impure in themselvesVII. Ablution with sandVIII. Menstruation

.....11

8 1016

BooK

2.

Pbayer

{Sala).I.

Chapter

General provisions

II.

Manner

of prayer

III.

Conditions for the validity of prayerfor

IV. Expiatory prostration

V. Prostrations

reading

thanksgiving

VI. Supererogatory prayer

BooK

3.

Public Prayer {Salai el jemaa). Chapter I. General provisions II. Prayer on a journey III. Public prayer on FridaysIV. Prayer in case of danger

...... ...... ... ..... ...... ..... ...... .....the Koran,

19

2432

3539

and

for

40

..... ........ .....

43 52 56 6264 66 6769

V. Public prayer at the two great festivals of the year VI. Prayer on the occasion of clipsesVII. Prayer in time of drought

VIII. Intentional omission of prescribed prayers

.

BooKBock

4.

FuNERAL CEREMONIES

{Jenaza)

.

.

.

.

.

.7080 83 85 86 89 90

5.

Alms Contribution, or Charity Tax Chapter I. Assessment on cattleII.

{Zakat).

Assessment on produce Assessment on gold and

III.

silver

..... ..... ...... .

IV. Assessment on mines, treasure and merchandise

V. Payment at the end of the f asting month VI. Persons and objects liable to assessment

.

Bock

6.

Fasting {Siam).

Chapter

I.

General provisions

........

95103104

II.

Supererogatory fasting

.

.

Bock

7.

Religious Retirement {Aaiakaf)

vmBooK8.

CONTENTSPlLGKIMAGE(Hajj).I.

Chapter

General provisionsStations

II.

.....

PAGE 107

109

III.

Ihram, or state of conscration

110112 120the

IV. Entry into

Mecca

V. Actions forbidden during ihram VI. Causes that prevent the accomplishment of pilgrimage

BooK

9.

Sale or Barter

(Bia).

Chapter,,

I.

General provisionsgainillicit

II. Illicit

,,

III.

Other

sales

IV. Right of option or cancellation

,,

V. Property sold, before the purchaser bas takenpossession

VI. Simple transferor at a loss

....... ...... ....... ...... ....... .......;

122

123

125 126129 135138

part transf er

;

transfer at a profit,

,,

VII. Sale of trees, fruit, and standing crops VIII. Disputes between vendor and purchaser

140

144145147

IX. Slaves

BooK

10.

Sale by Advance (Salam)

BooK Bock

11.

Pledge or Security (Rahn)Bankruptcy, Chapter ,,

152

12.

etc. [Taflis).I.

BankruptcyIncapacity of lunatics, minors, and spendthrifts

161

II.

167169

III.

Compromise, and right

of

way

IV. Transference of debtsV. Guaranty{Sherka)

174 175179181

BooK BooK

13.

Partnership

14.

15.16. 17.

Principal an Agent {Wakala) Admission (Ikrar).

188195

LoAN

(Aariya)

18.19.

20. 21. 22. 23.

Usurpation (Ghasb) Pre-emption (Shefaa) Joint-stock Companies {Kirad) Parming Leases {Mosaha) CoNTRACT DP HiRiNG (Ijara) Occupation of Land, etc. (Ahia.

el

mut)

Endowment (Wakaf)GiPTS (Hiba).

24.25. 26.27.

Things found {Lokta) PouNDLiNGS {Lehit)

JoB-WoRK

(Jaala)

28. 29.30.

Distribution of Esttes {Feraid)

WiLLs( If o^a^/a)Deposits (Wadiya)

198 205 210 215 218 226 230 234 236 240 244 246 259 269

CONTENTSBooK31.

LxPAGE

32. 33.

Distribution of the Profits of War and of Booty (Kesm elfi' wa el ghanima) Distribution of the Proceeds of the Tax {Kesm es Sadahal).

.........provisions. .

273277281

Marriage (Nikah). Chapter I. General,,

II.

Prohibited marriages

III.

Marriage of infidelsoption;

...... .......

.291295 299 305

34. 35.

IV. Right ofslaves

ifaf

:

and marriage between

Dower

{Sculak)

36. 37. 38.

,, ,,

39. 40. 41.42.

.,

43.

44. 45.46.47.

,,

Sharing of THE Husband's Favours, and Disobedience of WiVES (Kesm wa neshuz) Divorce (Khula) Rpudiation (Talak) Return to Conjugal Union (Rejaa) Oath of Continency (lia) Injurious Comparison {Dhihar) Expiation, with REGARD TO Injurious Comparison (iiCa/am) Imprcation {Lian) Period of Lgal Retirement (Idda) Period ofWaiting or a Slave (Z/tVim) Relationship b Fostesage {Radaa) Maintenance (Nafakai) Crimes ag.mnst the Person (Jerah). Chapter I. General provisions talion, and the Tl. Punishment under the law of.

....... ....... ......

316 320 327345

348352 355 358 365 375

..... ..... ...... .. .

378 383395

.

.

persons48.

who can demand. .

its

application

.

405

Price of Blood (Diya).

Chapter

I.

General provisionsObligationaakila;

.

.

.

.413the

II.

to

pay

the

and expiation

.....priceof

blood

;

49. 50.51.

,,

Procdure in Cases of Crimes against the Person (Dawa) Rebels (Biiqhal)Apostasy (Ridda) Fornication (Zina) Defamation {Hadd el Kazf) Crimes punishable with Amputation {Keta Chapter I. ThettII.

.

420 429433 436

........es sarika).;

52. 53.

439 442 440 448

54.

Brigands

55.

56.

Forbidden Beverages and Punishment at the Discrtion of .451 THE Court (Ashriba) Excusable Homicide and Wounding and Responsibility for .453 Damagb (Siaf wa deman el bawlat). .. . .

;

57. 58.

MiLiTARY Expditions PoLL-TAX {Jaziija).

Chapter,,

I.

General provisionsArmistices

II.

59.

HuNTiNG AND Slaughter of Animals {Sayd waSacrifices (Adhiya)

60. 61,62.

Eatables {Atama) Racing and Shooting Comptitions {Musabaka wa munadala)

....... ...... ....... ........ .......... . .

(Star)

457

debah)

.

.

465 470 472477

.

480 483

CONTENTSBooK63.

Oaths Yeman)(

64