Minerals and Rocks - C Rock • Three major classes of sedimentary rock o _____ sedimentary rock is formed form rock fragments that are compacted and cemented

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<ul><li><p>Minerals and Rocks Chapters Two and Three </p><p>Matter </p><p> Everything in the universe is made of matter. Matter is the substance of which an object is made, has mass and takes up </p><p>space </p><p> _______________ Properties of matter can be observed without changing the matter (ex. color, size, texture) </p><p> _______________ properties describe how a substance interacts with other substances to produce a different kind of matter </p><p>(ex. rusting, burning) </p><p>Atomic Structure </p><p> All matter is made up of elements, which are the simplest chemical form of matter. _______________ are listed on the </p><p>Periodic Table. </p><p> Elements consist of atoms. Atoms are made of three major subatomic particles; electrons (-), protons (+) and neutrons. </p><p>o The protons and neutrons together form the nucleus of the atom while the electrons swirl around the nucleus in the </p><p>electron cloud. </p><p> Each atom has several identifying characteristics </p><p>o _______________ number = # of protons </p><p>o _______________ number = protons + neutrons </p><p> Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers are_______________. </p><p>Composition of the Earths Crust </p><p> _______________ 47%, Silicon 28%, Aluminum 8.1%, Iron 5.0% </p><p>Solids, Liquids and Gases </p><p> There are four physical forms of matter, three of which occur on Earth. </p><p> The particles of a solid are packed tightly together and do not move much. Solids have definite shape and _______________ </p><p> The particles of a liquid are more free to move around, and have definite volume but takes the shape of the container it is in. </p><p> The particles of a gas move faster and more freely than solids or liquids. Gases have neither definite shape nor definite </p><p>volume. </p><p> _______________ is a high energy fourth phase that occurs under high temperature and pressure, as in the sun. </p><p>Combinations of Atoms </p><p> When atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined, the result is a _______________. </p><p> The smallest complete unit of a compound is called a molecule. </p><p> Molecules of two atoms are called _______________. </p><p> Compound formation is dependent on the interaction of electrons between atoms. This interactive force is a chemical bond. </p><p>Chemical Bonds </p><p> An_______________ bond is formed when atoms are involved in a transfer of electrons. </p><p>o An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carry an electrical charge. </p><p> A _______________ bond is formed when atoms are involved in the sharing of electrons. </p><p> The elements that make up the compound are always found in the same proportion. Therefore, a compound is represented by </p><p>a fixed chemical formula. </p><p>Mixtures </p><p> Elements and compounds are generally found mixed together. A mixture is a material that contains two or more substances </p><p>that are not chemically combined. (ex. _______________) </p><p> A mixture in which one substance is uniformly dispersed in another is called a _______________. (ex. salt water, alloy) </p><p>Minerals </p><p> Minerals are the basic materials of the earths crust. They are natural, _______________, _______________ solids. </p><p> There are twenty most common minerals are called rock-forming minerals, because they make up the rocks of the earths </p><p>crust. Ninety percent of mass of the earths crust is made up of only ten minerals. </p><p>Silicate and Nonsilicate </p><p> All minerals may be classified as silicate or nonsilicate. </p><p>o Silicate minerals contain atoms of silicon and oxygen </p><p> _______________ = SiO2 Muscovite = KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2 </p><p>o Nonsilicate minerals do not contain _______________ and make up only four percent of the earths crust </p><p> Flourite = CaF2 Silver = Ag Pyrite = FeS2 </p></li><li><p>Silicate Structure </p><p> One Si and Four O s bond in a _______________ shape </p><p> The silica tetrahedron is the basic building block of most minerals of the crust </p><p> Silica tetrahedra bond with other tetrahedra by sharing oxygen atoms </p><p> Other cations bond to form a wide variety of silicate minerals </p><p>Crystals </p><p> All minerals in the earths crust have a crystalline structure. A crystal is a natural solid with a definite shape. </p><p>Identifying Minerals </p><p> Major identifying characteristics of minerals </p><p> Color important because of it is easily observable </p><p> _______________ degree of reflected light (shiny-ness) </p><p> _______________ color in powder form </p><p> Cleavage and Fracture measure of how a mineral breaks or splits, which is related to the internal structure. Cleavage splits </p><p>along a flat plane while fracture is an uneven break </p><p> Hardness measured by _______________ Hardness Scale </p><p> Crystal Shape there are six basic crystal shapes </p><p>o Isometric, triclinic, hexagonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic &amp; tetragonal </p><p> _______________ ratio of mass to volume </p><p>Other Special Properties </p><p> A few minerals have additional properties that help to identify them </p><p>o Magnetism (ex. Magnetite) </p><p>o Fluorescence, glows under _______________ light (ex. Fluorite), and _______________, continue to glow after </p><p>UV light is turned off (ex. Calcite) </p><p>o Double refraction produces a double image when objects are viewed through them (ex. Quartz) </p><p>o Radioactivity (ex. _______________) </p><p>Rocks </p><p> There are three types of rock </p><p>o _______________ rock forms when magma cools and hardens </p><p>o _______________ rock forms when sediment deposits harden after compaction and cementation, and is usually laid </p><p>down in nearly horizontal layers called strata </p><p>o _______________ rock is formed when existing rock is changed by temperature, pressure or chemical processes </p><p>Igneous Rock </p><p> Important igneous rock families </p><p>o Granite forms from felsic lava which is rich in _______________ </p><p>o Basalt forms from mafic lava which is rich in iron </p><p>o Diorite forms from a combination of many minerals </p><p> The cooling of magma under the earths surface produces intrusive igneous rocks, while formation on the surface yields </p><p>_______________ igneous rocks. </p><p> Igneous rocks show a wide range of crystal size. Some called porphyry will have a mixture of large and small crystals </p><p>Sedimentary Rock </p><p> Three major classes of sedimentary rock </p><p>o _______________ sedimentary rock is formed form rock fragments that are compacted and cemented </p><p> Rounded fragments lead to a conglomerate Angular fragments lead to a breccia </p><p>o Chemical sedimentary rock forms from minerals that had been _______________ in water </p><p> On land, evaporites are formed when water is evaporated out of a dissolved mineral solution </p><p>o _______________ sedimentary rock forms from the remains of organisms (ex. Coal) </p><p>Metamorphic Rock </p><p> Metamorphism that occurs due to contact with magma is contact metamorphism </p><p> Metamorphism that occurs during periods of techtonic activity is called _______________ metamorphism </p><p> Metamorphic rocks have one of two structures </p><p>o A rock with a _______________ structure has visible bands </p><p>o A rock with an _______________ structure does not have visible bands </p><p>The Rock Cycle </p></li></ul>