Minerals and Rocks - C Rock Three major classes of sedimentary rock o _____ sedimentary rock is formed form rock fragments that are compacted and cemented ...

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Minerals and Rocks Chapters Two and Three Matter Everything in the universe is made of matter. Matter is the substance of which an object is made, has mass and takes up space _______________ Properties of matter can be observed without changing the matter (ex. color, size, texture) _______________ properties describe how a substance interacts with other substances to produce a different kind of matter (ex. rusting, burning) Atomic Structure All matter is made up of elements, which are the simplest chemical form of matter. _______________ are listed on the Periodic Table. Elements consist of atoms. Atoms are made of three major subatomic particles; electrons (-), protons (+) and neutrons. o The protons and neutrons together form the nucleus of the atom while the electrons swirl around the nucleus in the electron cloud. Each atom has several identifying characteristics o _______________ number = # of protons o _______________ number = protons + neutrons Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers are_______________. Composition of the Earths Crust _______________ 47%, Silicon 28%, Aluminum 8.1%, Iron 5.0% Solids, Liquids and Gases There are four physical forms of matter, three of which occur on Earth. The particles of a solid are packed tightly together and do not move much. Solids have definite shape and _______________ The particles of a liquid are more free to move around, and have definite volume but takes the shape of the container it is in. The particles of a gas move faster and more freely than solids or liquids. Gases have neither definite shape nor definite volume. _______________ is a high energy fourth phase that occurs under high temperature and pressure, as in the sun. Combinations of Atoms When atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined, the result is a _______________. The smallest complete unit of a compound is called a molecule. Molecules of two atoms are called _______________. Compound formation is dependent on the interaction of electrons between atoms. This interactive force is a chemical bond. Chemical Bonds An_______________ bond is formed when atoms are involved in a transfer of electrons. o An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carry an electrical charge. A _______________ bond is formed when atoms are involved in the sharing of electrons. The elements that make up the compound are always found in the same proportion. Therefore, a compound is represented by a fixed chemical formula. Mixtures Elements and compounds are generally found mixed together. A mixture is a material that contains two or more substances that are not chemically combined. (ex. _______________) A mixture in which one substance is uniformly dispersed in another is called a _______________. (ex. salt water, alloy) Minerals Minerals are the basic materials of the earths crust. They are natural, _______________, _______________ solids. There are twenty most common minerals are called rock-forming minerals, because they make up the rocks of the earths crust. Ninety percent of mass of the earths crust is made up of only ten minerals. Silicate and Nonsilicate All minerals may be classified as silicate or nonsilicate. o Silicate minerals contain atoms of silicon and oxygen _______________ = SiO2 Muscovite = KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2 o Nonsilicate minerals do not contain _______________ and make up only four percent of the earths crust Flourite = CaF2 Silver = Ag Pyrite = FeS2 Silicate Structure One Si and Four O s bond in a _______________ shape The silica tetrahedron is the basic building block of most minerals of the crust Silica tetrahedra bond with other tetrahedra by sharing oxygen atoms Other cations bond to form a wide variety of silicate minerals Crystals All minerals in the earths crust have a crystalline structure. A crystal is a natural solid with a definite shape. Identifying Minerals Major identifying characteristics of minerals Color important because of it is easily observable _______________ degree of reflected light (shiny-ness) _______________ color in powder form Cleavage and Fracture measure of how a mineral breaks or splits, which is related to the internal structure. Cleavage splits along a flat plane while fracture is an uneven break Hardness measured by _______________ Hardness Scale Crystal Shape there are six basic crystal shapes o Isometric, triclinic, hexagonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic & tetragonal _______________ ratio of mass to volume Other Special Properties A few minerals have additional properties that help to identify them o Magnetism (ex. Magnetite) o Fluorescence, glows under _______________ light (ex. Fluorite), and _______________, continue to glow after UV light is turned off (ex. Calcite) o Double refraction produces a double image when objects are viewed through them (ex. Quartz) o Radioactivity (ex. _______________) Rocks There are three types of rock o _______________ rock forms when magma cools and hardens o _______________ rock forms when sediment deposits harden after compaction and cementation, and is usually laid down in nearly horizontal layers called strata o _______________ rock is formed when existing rock is changed by temperature, pressure or chemical processes Igneous Rock Important igneous rock families o Granite forms from felsic lava which is rich in _______________ o Basalt forms from mafic lava which is rich in iron o Diorite forms from a combination of many minerals The cooling of magma under the earths surface produces intrusive igneous rocks, while formation on the surface yields _______________ igneous rocks. Igneous rocks show a wide range of crystal size. Some called porphyry will have a mixture of large and small crystals Sedimentary Rock Three major classes of sedimentary rock o _______________ sedimentary rock is formed form rock fragments that are compacted and cemented Rounded fragments lead to a conglomerate Angular fragments lead to a breccia o Chemical sedimentary rock forms from minerals that had been _______________ in water On land, evaporites are formed when water is evaporated out of a dissolved mineral solution o _______________ sedimentary rock forms from the remains of organisms (ex. Coal) Metamorphic Rock Metamorphism that occurs due to contact with magma is contact metamorphism Metamorphism that occurs during periods of techtonic activity is called _______________ metamorphism Metamorphic rocks have one of two structures o A rock with a _______________ structure has visible bands o A rock with an _______________ structure does not have visible bands The Rock Cycle

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