Midterm Review 2009-10 2007

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    M. Keffer human biology 27888067

    %1humanbio midterm review 2009-101. bonuses available

    a) BONUS (up to 5% on your exam) if you do this review sheet!b) by do the review sheet I mean: address each one of the items on this review

    sheet. doesnt have to be beautiful. just so that it lets me know that you know thestuff.

    c) ALSO -- WODs available for bonus from any time of the year!

    2. fair game:a) ANY question from ANY test or quiz is fair gameb) questions from previous tests might be on, but rearranged to be multiple choicec) ANY question from a typed sheet, or from an overhead, is fair game

    3. formata) MOST of the exam (probably about 75%) will be multiple choice or labeling.b) there will be a few longer-answer questions where you have to explain something

    in detail. You can make some pretty good guesses about these.

    4. hints:a) know the answers to all the multiple choice questions weve had on tests/quizzes

    so farb) make up some multiple choice questions of your own -- its good practice

    %1nutrition1. seven categories of nutrients -- what are they?

    Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fiber, water, vitamins & minerals.

    2. overall functions for carbohydrates, fats, proteins

    Carbs: provide body with energy.

    3. monosaccharides, polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose

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    4. drawings of glucose, disaccharide, starch, cellulose, glycogen (be able to recognize)

    %1digestive system1. three main functions of the digestive system

    1. Break food down

    2. Absorb food

    3. Dispose of food

    2. names, functions, locations of all organs in digestive system

    Esophagus: push food down to stomachStomach: break food down with acids

    Duodenum: place to allow food/fats to be broken down by bileLiver: create bile, filter bloodGallbladder: Store & release bilePancreas: Makes pancreatic juices & hormonesSmall intestine: Absorbs nutrients from broken down foodLarge intestine: Absorb water from & store feces

    3. FIBER and diverticulitis connection

    If you dont eat enough fiber, then the feces do not absorb enough water & parts of them get

    stuck in the large intestine, causing diverticulitis.4. pancreas functions: endocrine, exocrine, baking soda, digestive enzymes

    5. the gall bladder how it works, during meals, in between meals

    1. Bile from liver moves down hepatic duct2. Normally sphincter is closed3. Bile is stored and concentrated in gall bladder4. Muscles squeeze gall bladder and bile is forced down into duodenum

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    6. explain the following disorders:

    Celiac disorder:Damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People whohave celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley.Jaundice:Yellowish staining of the skin and the whites of the eyes that is caused by high levels of bilirubinin blood

    Appendicitis:Appendicitis begins when the opening from the appendix into the cecum becomes blocked bystool in the large intestine, causing an infection. If the infection spreads then the appendix canrupture and if the matter in the appendix makes it into the small intestine + gets absorbed, it canbe deadly.Gallstones:Small (or large) pebble-like pieces of bile that have hardened and eventually block theentrance/exit to the gallbladder, not allowing bile to leave so fats are not broken down and notabsorbed. You can tell if you have gallstones if you have excessive pain while eating/digestion(because of the pushing around of gallstones in gallbladder to pump out bile) and if your fecesfloat because of the excess fat. If it is serious and gallbladder is taken out, the person cannot eat

    anything very fatty because they can do not have the bile execrated to break it down.

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    %1respiratory system1. label diagram names and functions

    2. pulmonary capillaries which way is blood flowing?

    From heart back to heart.

    3. gas movement at the alveolar membrane: which way is O2 going? which way is CO2

    going?O2 is leaving the gas in alveoli and entering blood, CO2 is leaving the blood + entering gas inalveoli.

    4. whats happening in each of the following?a) Tuberculosis

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that mainly involves the lungs,but may spread to other organs. Someone with TB will have trouble breathing, coughing upblood, excessive sweating, and chest pain. Left untreated it is fatal but there is a cure for it.

    b) emphysema

    A lung disease which makes it difficult to breathe, the alveoli burst forming one large alveoliwhich does not have nearly the amount of surface area as the small ones so it oxygenates muchless blood slower. Caused by smoking and irreversible.

    c) pneumothorax (difference between open and tension pneumothorax)

    When the surface tension between the lung and pleural membranes brakes (because of some sortof injury pushing through them), causing the lung to collapse. An open pneumothorax is lessdangerous because the air that enters from outside can leave without causing too much damageto the lungs/organs. When there is a flap of skin in the way, however, the air cannot leave thechest cavity and causes the one functioning lung to shrink.

    d) Cricothyrotomy

    Emergency incision through the skin and cricothyroid membrane to secure a patient's airwayduring certain emergency situations, such as an airway obstructed by a foreign object orswelling.

    e) collapsed lung

    Result of a pneumothorax, surface tension between lung and lower/upper pleural membranes isbroken causing lung to deflate.

    f) Pneumonia

    An infection of the lungs. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, andfungi.

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_medicinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cricothyroid_membranehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cricothyroid_membranehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_medicine
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    M. Keffer human biology 27888067

    2. varicose veins -- what they are, why they happen

    Swollen, twisted, painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood. Valves invein do not function properly, allowing blood to remain in the vein. Pooling of blood in a veincauses it to enlarge.

    3. Thrombophlebitis

    Inflammation of a vein caused by a blood clot.

    4. elephantiasis: involvement of lymph vesselsThere is an abnormal accumulation of watery fluid in the tissues (edema) causing severeswelling. The skin usually develops a thickened, swollen appearance.

    5. hemolytic anemia

    A condition in which there are not enough red blood cells in the blood, due to the prematuredestruction of red blood cells.

    6. thrombus/embolus/embolism/embolectomy

    A clot formed in a blood vessel or in a chamber of the heart.A blockage of an artery by fat, air, a blood clot, or tumor cells.An embolism when an object migrates from one part of the body and causes a blockage of ablood vessel in another part of the body.

    The removal of a clot preventing blood from flowing in the body.7. arteriovenous malformation (AVM)

    Abnormal connection between veins and arteries.

    8. valve action in veins how valves help blood return to the heart

    The pressure in veins is very low, so the valves keep it from flowing backward.

    9. four hallmarks of inflammation

    Redness, swelling, pain, heat.

    10.capillary beds, shunt, thoroughfare channel, true capillary

    The shunt can turn on and off the flow through the capillary beds.

    11. shock -- five different kinds, when each might happen

    Hypovolemic shock: lack of blood volume in veins due to loss of blood.Neurogenic shock: dilation of blood vessels caused by imbalance in smooth muscle walls.Anaphylactic shock: results from an allergic reactionSeptic shock: infectious agents release toxins into blood causing blood vessels to dilate.Cardiogenic shock: results from heart failure, heart can no longer pump effectively + blood flowto the tissues of the body decreases or stops.

    12.precapillary sphincters -- how and WHY they work

    The sphincters can turn on and off the flow through the capillary beds.

    13.blood pressure -- explain why its important; normal values; systolic and diastolicpressures

    120/80 -> high blood pressure = 140/90.

    High blood pressure causes various diseases such as myocardial infarction, so one should alwayskeep an eye on their blood pressure.Systole -> blood pressure when ventricles contract (120)Diastolic -> blood pressure between contractions (80)

    14.korotkoff sounds -- what they are and why they happen; note theyre NOT the sameas heartbeat sounds!

    They are caused by the blood passage causing vibrations in the walls of the bloodvessel, heart beats are the ventricles and atria contracting.

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vesselhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veinshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arterieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vesselhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veinshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arteries
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    %1heart and heart disease1. label and tell function of all parts of heart

    2. social aspects and costs related to atherosclerosis

    Most expensive disease, by far, in America.

    3. atherosclerosis -- describe how disease works at level of blood vessel

    Plaque builds up in the blood vessels; white blood cells see the plaque as an infection and swarmto eat/attack it. The white blood vessels burst and cause more white blood cells to come and dothe same. Plaque builds up between walls of artery, causing the artery to lose its elasticity,diameter, and damages the artery walls. This continues to repeat until the artery is clogged,plaque ruptures, and causes a heart attack.

    4. electrical conduction system in the heart be able to label and tell the fxns of eachpart (SA node, AV node, bundle of His, purkinje fibers)

    Sino Atria node releases electrical current, AV node spreads to the atria, the AV bundle delaysthe current, then the purkinje fibers spread it throughout the ventricles.

    5. rhythm of normal heartbeat, AND why thats important (rem: AV, AV, AV...)

    6. what makes heartbeat sounds?

    The cuspid & semilunar valves snapping shut.

    7. electrocardiogram (ECG ) be able to describe the major sections of the graph andwhat each means

    8. path of circulation in a normal heartbeat (the cardiac cycle); describe the linear cycleand the parallel cycle

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    Blood moves from the pulmonary veins to the left atrium through the bicuspid valve to the leftventricle to the aorta through the aortic semilunar valve to the body through the vena cava to theright atrium through the tri cuspid valve to the right ventricle through the pulmonary arterythrough the pulmonary semilunar valve to the lungs and into the pulmonary veins.

    9. Describe whats going on in the following:a) heart murmur

    Valves do not shut completely allowing back flow.

    b) congestive heart failureThe heart has weakened and can no longer pump blood efficiently throughout the body.

    c) Endocarditis

    Inflammation of the endocardial layer of the heart caused by bacteria -> hole between twochambers of the heart.

    10. *** long, medium, and short-term factors leading to johns heart attack ***

    11.TPA (and what it stands for) and why its important

    Tissue plasminogen activator -> clot-buster drug, used to bust clots caused causing heart attackand myocardial infarction.

    12.atrioventricular fibrillation -- what is it? what happens next?

    The heart stops pumping so blood is not pushed anywhere, heart failure unless a defibrillator isused successfully.

    13.during johns heart attack, at some point he was drowning in his own bodily fluids.why and how?

    Pulmonary edema -> heart was not pumping blood quickly enough to blood was staying inpulmonary capillaries for too long and fluids were leaking into the alveoli.

    14.cartoon vessels of the heart

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    %1sections and directions1. coronal, frontal, transverse, sagittal sectioning methods

    2. anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral

    %1

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    %1vocabularyreview

    %1(arranged alphabetically;mostly just to jog your memory.Many of these are repeats from

    the upper section of thisreview.)

    1. Anterior: Front

    2. arteriovenous malformation:abnormal connection betweenveins and arteries

    3. atherosclerosis: Plaque building inarteries

    4. AV node: Sends electrical currentto atria.

    5. balloon angioplasty: Balloon stuckinto an artery to expand it.

    6. Cardiogenic: Inadequate circulationof blood due to primary failure ofthe ventricles

    7. carotid artery: Narrowed artery dueto plaque.

    8. Coronal: Frontal

    9. coronary artery: Two majorcoronary arteries branch off fromthe aorta near the point where the

    aorta and the left ventricle meet.10.Cricothyrotomy: Emergency

    incision through the skin andcricothyroid membrane to secure apatient's airway during certainemergency situations, such as anairway obstructed by a foreignobject or swelling.

    11.Diastolic: blood pressure betweencontractions

    12.Disaccharide: Any of a class ofsugars, including lactose and

    sucrose, that are composed of two.

    13.Distal: Anatomically located farfrom a point of reference

    14.ECG: electrocardiogram; diagnostictool that measures and records theelectrical activity of the heart.

    15. -ectomy

    16.Edema: inflammation

    17.Embolectomy: surgical removal ofan embolus.

    18.Emphysema: A lung disease whichmakes it difficult to breathe, thealveoli burst forming one largealveoli which does not have nearly

    the amount of surface area as thesmall ones so it oxygenates muchless blood slower. Caused bysmoking and irreversible.

    19.Epiglottis: A flap of tissue that sitsat the base of the tongue thatkeeps food from going into thetrachea, or windpipe, duringswallowing.

    20.expiratory reserve volume

    21. fatty acid: carboxylic acids with

    long hydrocarbon chains.22.Fibrillation: rapid, irregular, and

    unsynchronized contraction ofmuscle fibers.

    23.Frontal: section of front from back

    24.Glycogen: storage form of glucosein animals and humans which isanalogous to the starch in plants.

    25.hard palate: roof of the mouth; thepartition separating the nasal andoral cavities.

    26.HDL: High-density lipoprotein

    27.Hypovolemic: lack of blood volumein veins due to loss of blood.

    28.-itis

    29.korotkoff sounds: They are causedby the blood passage causingvibrations in the walls of the bloodvessel, heart beats are theventricles and atria contracting.

    30.Lateral: Same side as

    31.LDL: Low-density-liproteins32.Medial: Opposite side as

    33.Monosaccharide: Any of seve...