Microprocessor Lecture1

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<ol><li> 1. LLeeccttuurree 11MMiiccrroopprroocceessssoorr ccoouurrsseeBByy:: AAttuusshh JJaaiinnWednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 1 </li><li> 2. General Definitions A Computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: It responds to a specific set of instructions in awelldefined manner. It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions(a program ). Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery wires, transistors, andcircuits is called hardware. the instructions anddata are called software.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 2 </li><li> 3. General Definitions (cont..)Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 3 </li><li> 4. General Definitions (cont..) All general-purpose computers require the followinghardware components: Memory: Enables a computer to store, at leasttemporarily, data and programs. Mass storage device :Allows a computer topermanently retain large amounts of data. Commonmass storage devices include disk drives and tapedrives. Input device: Usually a keyboard and mouse arethe input device through which data and instructionsenter a computer.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 4 </li><li> 5. General Definitions (cont..) Output device: A display screen, printer, orother device that lets you see what the computerhas accomplished. Central processing unit (CPU): The heart ofthe computer, this is the component that actuallyexecutes instructions. In addition to these components, many othersmake it possible for the basic components towork together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus thattransmits data from one part of the computer toanother.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 5 </li><li> 6. General Definitions (cont..) Computers can be generally classified by size andpower as follows, though there is considerableoverlap: Personal computer: A small, single-user computerbased on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personalcomputer has a keyboard for entering data, amonitor for displaying information, and a storagedevice for saving data. Working station : A powerful, single-usercomputer. A workstation is like a personal computer,Wednesday, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and ahigher-quality October 15, monitor.2A0t1u4sh Jain 6 </li><li> 7. General Definitions (cont..) Minicomputer : A multi-user computer capableof supporting from 10 to hundreds of userssimultaneously. Mainframe : A powerful multi-user computercapable of supporting many hundreds orthousands of users simultaneously. Supercomputer : An extremely fast computerthat can perform hundreds of millions ofinstructions per second.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 7 </li><li> 8. General Definitions (cont..) Microcomputer: The term microcomputer isgenerally synonymous with personal computer, ora computer that depends on a microprocessor. Microcomputers are designed to be used byindividuals, whether in the form of PCs,workstations or notebook computers. A microcomputer contains a CPU on a microchip(the microprocessor), a memory system (typicallyROM and RAM), a bus system and I/O ports,typically housed in a motherboard.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 8 </li><li> 9. General Definitions (cont..) Microprocessor: A silicon chip that contains aCPU. In the world of personal computers, theterms microprocessor and CPU are usedinterchangeably. A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated P) isa digital electronic component with miniaturizedtransistors on a single semiconductor integratedcircuit (IC). One or more microprocessors typically serve as acentral processing unit (CPU) in a computersystem or handheld device. Microprocessors made possible the advent of themicrocomputer.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 9 </li><li> 10. General Definitions (cont..) At the heart of all personal computers and mostworking stations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost alldigital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injectionsystems for automobiles. Three basic characteristics differentiatemicroprocessors: Instruction set: The set of instructions that themicroprocessor can execute. Bus width : The number of bits processed in asingle instructionWednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 10 </li><li> 11. General Definitions (cont..) Clock speed : Given in megahertz (MHz), theclock speed determines how many instructionsper second the processor can execute. In both cases, the higher the value, the morepowerful the CPU. For example, a 32 bitmicroprocessor that runs at 50MHz is morepowerful than a 16-bit microprocessor thatruns at 50MHz. In addition to bus width and clock speed,microprocessors are classified as being eitherRISC (reduced instruction set computer) or CISC(complex instruction set computer).Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 11 </li><li> 12. General Definitions (cont..) Supercomputer: A supercomputer is a computerthat performs at or near the currently highestoperational rate for computers. A supercomputer is typically used for scientificand engineering applications that must handlevery large databases or do a great amount ofcomputation (or both). At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicizedsupercomputers that operate at thevery latest and always incredible speeds.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 12 </li><li> 13. General Definitions (cont..) Microcontroller: A highly integrated chip thatcontains all the components comprising acontroller. Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form ofROM, I/O ports, and timers. Unlike a general-purpose computer, which alsoincludes all of these components, a microcontrolleris designed for a very specific task - to control aparticular system. A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor,which is a general-purpose chip that is used tocreate a multifunction computer or device andrequires multiple chips to handle various tasks.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 13 </li><li> 14. General Definitions (cont..) A microcontroller is meant to be more self-containedand independent, and functions as atiny, dedicated computer. The great advantage of microcontrollers, asopposed to using larger microprocessors, is thatthe parts-count and design costs of the itembeing controlled can be kept to a minimum. They are typically designed using CMOS(complementary metal oxide semiconductor)technology, an efficient fabrication technique thatuses less power and is more immune to powerspikes than other techniquesWednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 14 </li><li> 15. General Definitions (cont..) Controller: A device that controls the transfer ofdata from a computer to a peripheral device andvice versa. For example, disk drives, display screens,keyboards and printers all require controllers. In personal computers, the controllers are oftensingle chips. When you purchase a computer, it comes with allthe necessary controllers for standardcomponents, such as the display screen,keyboard, and disk drivesWednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 15 </li><li> 16. General Definitions (cont..) If you attach additional devices, however, youmay need to insert new controllers that come onexpansion boards. Controllers must be designed to communicatewith the computer's expansion bus. There are three standard bus architectures forPCs - the AT bus, PCI (Peripheral ComponentInterconnect ) and SCSI. When you purchase a controller, therefore, youmust ensure that it conforms to the busarchitecture that your computer uses.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 16 </li><li> 17. General Definitions (cont..) Embedded system: A specialized computersystem that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on asingle microprocessor board with the programsstored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital Interfacewatches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -utilizeembedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operatingsystem, but many are so specialized that theentire logic can be implemented as a singleprogram.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 17 </li><li> 18. General Definitions (cont..)Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 18 </li><li> 19. General Definitions (cont..) A Digital Signal Processor is a special-purposeCPU (Central Processing Unit) that providesultra-fast instruction sequences, such as shiftand add, and multiply and add, which arecommonly used in math-intensive signalprocessing applications. A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specializedmicroprocessor designed specifically for digitalsignal processing, generally in real time.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 19 </li><li> 20. General Definitions (cont..) Digital operating by the use of discrete signals torepresent data in the form of numbers. Signal a variable parameter by which information isconveyed through an electronic circuit. Processing to perform operations on data according toprogrammed instructions.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 20 </li><li> 21. General Definitions (cont..) Digital Signal processing changing or analysing information which ismeasured as discrete sequences of numbers . Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study ofsignals in a digital representation and theprocessing methods of these signals. DSP and analog signal processing are subfields ofsignal processing.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 21 </li><li> 22. General Definitions (cont..) DSP has three major subfields: Audio signal processing, Digital imageprocessing and Speech processing. Since the goal of DSP is usually to measure orfilter continuous real-world analog signals, thefirst step is usually to convert the signal from ananalog to a digital form, by using an analog todigital converter. Often, the required output signal is anotheranalog output signal, which requires a digital toanalog converter.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 22 </li><li> 23. General Definitions (cont..) Characteristics of Digital Signal Processors: Separate program and data memories (Harvardarchitecture). Special Instructions for SIMD (Single Instruction,Multiple Data) operations. Only parallel processing, no multitasking. The ability to act as a direct memory access device ifin a host environment. Takes digital data from ADC (Analog-DigitalConverter) and passes out data which is finallyoutput by converting into analog by DAC (Digital-Analog Converter). analog input--&gt;ADC--&gt;DSP--&gt;DAC--&gt; analog outputWednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 23 </li><li> 24. General Definitions (cont..)Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 24 </li><li> 25. General Definitions (cont..) The advantages of DSP are : Versatility: digital systems can be reprogrammed for otherapplications (at least where programmable DSPchips are used) digital systems can be ported to differenthardware (for example a different DSP chip orboard level product) Repeatability: digital systems can be easily duplicated digital system responses do not drift withtemperatureWednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 25 </li><li> 26. General Definitions (cont..) digital systems do not depend on strictcomponent tolerances. Simplicity: some things can be done more easily digitallythan with analogue systems DSP is used in a very wide variety of applicationsbut most share some common features: they use a lot of multiplying and addingsignals. they deal with signals that come from the realworld. they require a response in a certain time.Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 26 </li><li> 27. General Definitions (cont..) What is the difference between a DSP and amicroprocessor ? The essential difference between a DSP and amicroprocessor is that a DSP processor hasfeatures designed to support high-performance,repetitive, numerically intensive tasks. In contrast, general-purpose processors ormicrocontrollers (GPPs / MCUs for short) areeither not specialized for a specific kind ofapplications (in the case of general-purposeprocessors), or they are designed for control-orientedapplications (in the case ofmicrocontrollers).Wednesday, October 15, 2A0t1u4sh Jain 27 </li></ol>