Microorganisms What are they? What do they do? What do they look like?

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Microorganisms What are they? What do they do? What do they look like? Slide 2 Microbiology Study of microorganisms Organisms not visible with naked eye Require magnifying glass or microscope Includes wide variety of different organisms Slide 3 Microorganisms are: Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Animals Slide 4 Microorganisms are Ubiquitous Found virtually everywhere Most are harmless Some are beneficial Used in research Used to make foods (yeast, mold) Used to make antibiotics Slide 5 Light Microscope Allows one to view most types of microorganisms (not most viruses) Magnifies 40x 1000x Works by passing light through a series of glass lenses that bend or refract light rays Microorganisms viewed may be living or fixed and stained to enhance visibility Slide 6 Microscopy: The Instruments A simple microscope has only one lens This is A. Van Leeuwenhoeks microscope from the 1600s Figure 1.2b Slide 7 Parts of a typical light microscope Slide 8 Electron Microscopes Use beam of electrons, instead of light to magnify Magnify up to 100,000X or more Allow us to look inside cells and even see molecules Slide 9 Units of Length Light microscope can view objects measured in millimeters and micrometers Electron microscope can view objects measured in micrometers and nanometers Slide 10 Bacteria Prokaryotic cells The genetic material in their cells is not contained in a nucleus Appear as different shapes Bacilli (rod-shaped) Cocci (round) Spirilla (spiral) Most ubiquitous microorganism Slide 11 Stained Bacteria Slide 12 Average size: 0.2 -1.0 m 2 - 8 m Basic shapes: Bacterial Morphology cocci bacilli spirals Slide 13 Usefulness of Bacteria Decomposers: (natures recyclers) break down dead matter Clean up the Earths land &amp; water Help with digestion Make vitamins your body needs Used to make medicines (insulin) Food production: cheese, yogurt, sour cream, sauerkraut, pickles, etc. Slide 14 Viruses Tiny, nonliving particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell Most are harmful Slide 15 Characteristics of Viruses Does not have all the characteristics essential for life Viruses can only multiply when they are inside a living cell Acts like a parasite Parasite: an organism that lives on or in a host and causes it harm Host: an organisms that provides a source of energy for a virus Slide 16 Usefulness of Viruses Gene Therapy Take advantage of a viruss ability to enter a host cell Gene therapy allows scientists to deliver needed genetic material to cells Slide 17 Viruses, Bacteria, &amp; Your Health Slide 18 Pathogenic Microorganisms Are harmful to humans Able to cause pathology (damage) in host - Invade host and damage tissue Cause infectious disease Disease that is transmitted from one source to another Bacteria and viruses responsible for most infectious diseases Slide 19 Infectious Diseases Can spread through contact with: An infected person (touching, hugging, or kissing) A contaminated object (sharing drinks or eating utensils) An infected animal (an animal bite) An environmental source (eating uncooked eggs or meat) Slide 20 Common Infectious Diseases Bacterial Lyme Disease Tuberculosis Tetanus Strep Throat Viral The cold The flu Cold sores Chicken pox AIDS Slide 21 Streptococcal Skin Infection Slide 22 Anthrax Lesion Slide 23 Rash From Lyme Disease Slide 24 Common Cold &amp; The Flu Virus Many different strains Slide 25 Round virus Chicken pox: causes an itchy rash on human skin Slide 26 Bullet-shaped Rabies virus infects nerve cells in certain animals Slide 27 Viral Infection Cold Sores Slide 28 Treating Infectious Diseases Bacterial Diseases Antibiotics Antibiotic resistance Results when some bacteria are able to survive in the presence of an antibiotic Viral Diseases No medications that can cure viral infections Slide 29 Vaccines Important tools that help prevent the spread of infectious diseases Vaccine: a substance introduced into the body to stimulate the production of chemicals that destroy specific viruses or bacteria Made from dead or weak or altered viruses and bacteria Slide 30 Fungi Eukaryotic cells Can be multicellular molds or unicellular yeasts Slide 31 Protozoa Unicellular eukaryotic organisms Show various forms of motility Flagella Cilia Pseudopodia Slide 32 Animals Multicelluar Worms Small arthropods Serve as vectors for disease transmission Ectoparasites Feed on blood by biting Slide 33 Slide 34 Microscopy Microorganisms not visible with naked eye Only visible with some method of magnification Most microorganisms require a microscope to view them Light microscope provides 40X to 1000X Electron microscope provides 5000X to 500,000X Slide 35 Measuring Microorganisms Microorganisms, because of their small size, require small units of measurement Micrometer (um) is 1x10 -6 meter or 0.001 mm Sufficient to measure bacteria, fungi, protozoa Nanometer (nm) is 1X10 -9 meter or 0.001um Sufficient to measure viruses and sub cellular particles Slide 36 Units of Length Light microscope can view objects measured in millimeters and micrometers Electron microscope can view objects measured in micrometers and nanometers Slide 37 TEM and SEM </p>