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  • U.D. Zeitner Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik

    Jena

    Micro- and Nano-Technology... ... for Optics

    1. Introduction

    Micro- and Nano-Technology... ... for Optics

    1. Introduction

  • NGC 6744NGC 6744

    GAIA (ESA) launched in Dec. 2013

    RVS

    230mm

    GAIA’s effective medium grating

  • Micro-Structured Optics in Nature

    2µm

    Nano-structures with anti-reflection properties on moth‘s- eyes

    Lens-arrays as insects eyes

    100µm

    Colors of butterflies by diffraction gratings

    4µm

  • Different Approaches

    Nature Technology

    !?!?

    “Bottom-Up” “Top-Down”

    Lithography

  • huge variety of high resolution structures

    The field of micro-structured optics

  • 1mm

    1µm

    10nm

    10µm

    100µm

    100nm

    characteristic feature size

    micro-lenses, micro-prisms

    lens-arrays, refractive beam-shaper

    diffractive beam-shaper, Fresnel-lenses, diffraction gratings

    effective media, sub-λ-gratings, photonic crystals, meta-materials

    hybride elements

    Size scale of micro-optical effects

  • Size-Scale of Optical Structures

    1nm

    1µm

    1mm

    1m

    law of refraction and reflection

    light diffraction

    effective medium

    spontaneous and stimulated emission

    astronomic mirrors

    lenses

    micro-lenses

    antireflection pattern, polarizers, phase retarder photonic crystals

    miniaturized lenses

    paraxial beam splitters

    non paraxial beam splitter

    spectroscopic gratings

    m ic

    ro o

    p ti

    c s

    λλλλλλλλ

    (atomic size) light sources

    optical elementsoptical elementsoptical effectsoptical effects

  • Effects of Size-Scaling

    1mm 100µm 10µm 1µm 100nm

    refraction diffraction

    influence of physical effects on optical functions is changing if characteristic feature sizes are scaled

    focus: f=5mm

    125µm

    Strukturgröße

    artificial dichroitic materials

    physical effect: effective material- properties

    disturbing useful !

    diffractive beam splitter

    2µm

    wire- grid- polarizer

  • Milestones of optical engineering

    Maxwell

    1831 - 1879

    electromagnetic wave theory

    Fresnel

    1788 - 1827

    wave theory of the light

    Hertz

    1857 - 1894

    exp. confirm. of Maxwell

    Fourier

    1768 - 1830

    Fourier expansion

    Abbe

    1840 - 1905

    theory of opt. image

    Basics in physics and mathematics Analytical and numerical

    evaluation of physical optics

    Personal Computer

    Demands on micro- and

    nanomachining

    1 8

    0 0

    1 9

    0 0

    2 0

    0 0

    Fundamental understanding

    of optics

    Zuse

    1910 - 1995

    1941 1st calculator

  • Fabrication Technologies for Micro-Optics

    common micro-optics fabrication methods are

    • lithography (photo-, e-beam-, laser-)

    • ultra precision micro-machining

    • melting / reflow technology

    • more elaborated technologies

    different size and functionality different fabrication methods

    for micro-optical components compared to classical (macro) optics

  • High resolution lithography

    ASML-Stepper

    Fabrication of microelectronic chips on Si-wafers

  • Lithography Roadmap

  • Lithography for Optical Applications

    Lithography tools are developed for micro-electronics fabrication!

    Demands of optics on lithography:

    • arbitrary lateral contours (often radially symmetric) • several 100mm size of single elements with sub-micron features • thick substrates for elements with low wave-front error • non-planar substrates possible • …

    steady development along semiconductor road-mapJJJJ

    vanishing versatility for other applications LLLL

  • Typical Optical Surfaces and Contours

    Contours Profiles

    lens prism beam shaper

    binary grating blazed grating

    subwavelength gratings

    complex surface profiles

    >> λλλλ

    < λλλλ

    > λλλλ

    >> λλλλ > λλλλ < λλλλ

    characteristic detail

    Courtesy of E.-B. Kley

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