mesothermal climates (c) humid subtropical (hot-summer) climates (cfa) humid subtropical...

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  • Mesothermal Climates (C)Humid Subtropical (Hot-Summer) Climates (Cfa)Humid Subtropical (Winter-Dry) Climates (Cwa)Marine West Coast Climates (Cfb, Cfc)Mediterranean Dry-Summer Climates (Csa, Csb)

  • Mesothermal Climates (C)Humid Subtropical (Winter-Dry) Climates (Cwa) C = warmest month above 10C, coldest month above -3C = seasonal climatesa = hot summer, warmest month above 22Cw = winter dry (> 70% of rainfall concentrated in summer months)

  • Mesothermal Climates (C)

  • Microthermal ClimatesHumid Continental Hot-Summer ClimatesDfa, Dwa Humid Continental Mild-Summer ClimatesDfb, DwbSubarctic ClimatesSubarctic Cool-Summer: Dfc, DwcSubarctic Extreme-Winter: Dfd, Dwd

  • Microthermal Climates (D)Subarctic Climates (Dfc, Dwc, Dwd)Found poleward of Dfb and Dwb climate.Extensive geographically:North America, stretching from Atlantic to Pacific.Eurasia, stretching from Scandinavia to the Pacific.Subarctic extreme-winter found only in eastern AsiaMost extreme temperature ranges of all climatesExtremely cold temperatures in winter primarily due to:continental locations = Siberian High in winterhigher latitudescP air masses

  • Microthermal Climates (D)

  • Polar and Highland Climates Tundra Climate(ET)Ice Cap and Ice Sheet Climates (EF)Polar Marine Climate (aka Polar Maritime) EMMore moderate than other two polar climates (why?)No month below -7C (20F), but not as warm as tundra climateLow annual range of temperatureExists only along very fringes of highest latitudesBering Sea (Alaska, Russia), southern Greenland, northern Iceland, Norway)

  • Polar and Highland Climates

  • Chapter 10Climate ChangeGeosystems 6eAn Introduction to Physical Geography

    Robert W. ChristophersonCharles E. Thomsen

  • Causes of Climate ChangeVariations in the Earths orbital characteristicsAtmospheric carbon dioxide variationsVolcanic eruptions Variations in solar outputHumans

  • Greenhouse GasesHuman activities are enhancing the Earths natural greenhouse effectCarbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs, and water vaporGreenhouse gases are transparent to sunlight but opaque to longwave radiation

  • Carbon DioxideAtmospheric CO2 levels began rising during the Industrial RevolutionTremendous fossil fuel burning and heavy deforestation increased CO2 levels this trend continuesCO2 is responsible for 64% of global warming

  • Carbon Dioxide Sources

  • What are the Fossil Fuels?

  • Carbon Dioxide Sources

  • MethaneMethane currently increasing faster than CO2 in the atmosphere19% of total atmospheric warming attributed to methaneMethane generated by rotting vegetation, digestion in cattle and termites, burning of vegetation, and melting permafrost

  • Methane (CH4)

  • Volcanic EruptionsSulfur dioxide reacts with water vapor causing hazeCombined with ejected particulate matterOne of the coldest years in the last two centuries was 1816, the Year Without a SummerCaused by eruption of Tambora in 1815 Temperatures can decrease after eruptions for up to 3 yearsMount St. Helens

  • Variations in Solar OutputClimate models predict that a change in solar output of only 1 percent per century alters the Earths average temperature by 0.5 -1.0 CSunspotsHuge magnetic storms Seen as dark (cooler) areas on the sun's surface. Cycle every 11, 90, and 180 years

  • GCM PredictionsCrop patterns and natural plant/animal habitats will shift to maintain preferred temperaturesDuring this century, climate regions could shift 90-350 miles polewardSoil moisture projected to decrease in midlatitudes

  • GCM PredictionsForest cover will undergo major species disturbancesExpansion of zones affected by tropical diseasesAlpine glaciers

  • Global TemperaturesFigure 10.281.4C = 2.5F

  • Temperature Anomalies for 2003Figure 10.28

  • Sea Level IssuesDuring this century, global warming will cause sea levels to rise at least 1.5 meters (about 4.5 feet).

  • Sea Level RiseDuring the 20th century, sea level rose 4-8 inchesCould rise 3.5-34.7 inches this centuryThermal expansion of water will increase sea level riseHigher sea levels = destruction of small island nations, river deltas, lowland coastal farming, barrier islands

  • July 2029 Temperature ForecastFigure 10.31

  • Disintegration of Ice ShelvesIn 2002, Larsen-B ice shelve collapsed in 35 days after existing for 11,000 yearsWarmer ocean and air temperatures are melting shelves on both sidesClear evidence of changes in Earths energy balance

  • Antarctic Ice DisintegrationFigure 10.32

  • Arctic ClimatesChanges in ocean temperatures could alter global temperaturesArctic region warmed 9F since 1987This has led to a freshening of northern oceansGreenland ice melting at 1m/yearPermafrost is meltingIncreased precipitation in Arctic/Antarctic areas

  • End of Chapter 10Climate Change

    Geosystems 6eAn Introduction to Physical Geography

    Robert W. ChristophersonCharlie Thomsen


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