Meningeal Worm Moose, elk, caribou, reindeer, mule deer, black-tailed deer, mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids, fallow deer, red deer, red deer/elk hybrids,

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<ul><li><p>Meningeal WormMoose, elk, caribou, reindeer, mule deer, black-tailed deer, mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids, fallow deer, red deer, red deer/elk hybrids, domestic sheep and goats, llamas, guinea pigs, and several bovid and cervid species in zoos Appears reindeer, caribou, llamas, and domestic goats are very susceptible Speculated that caribou and reindeer may be more likely to acquire infected gastropods because of their feeding habits Causes incoordination, circling, recumbency, paralysis </p></li><li><p>Meningeal Worm</p><p>thousands of eggs per gram of deer feces larvae are highly resistant to environmental forces weather dependent (wet and cool) support high gastropod abundance </p></li><li><p>Meningeal WormDistribution of meningeal worm in eastern and western South Dakota. Note separation of eastern from western South Dakota by the Missouri River. (Christopher and Jenks 2004. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40:133-136) </p></li><li><p>Raccoon Roundwormmidwestern U.S. documented in 6882% of raccoons</p></li><li><p>Raccoon Roundworm- Prevalence, intensity of infection, avg # of larvae significantly higher in the highly fragmented landscape. Within the agricultural landscape- Probability of infection, intensity of infection, and avg # of larvae per mouse per patch as functions of forest patch area and isolation</p></li><li><p>Raccoon RoundwormA study conducted in Northern California tried to determine if a pattern existed to the preferred location of latrines. While latrines on the ground and on roofs appeared to be the most favorable, preferences varied by location. </p></li><li><p>Raccoon RoundwormPercentage of California properties that contained at least one raccoon latrine positive for Baylisascaris procyonis eggs (number of properties = 164). </p></li><li><p>Raccoon RoundwormFormer range of the Allegheny woodrat (inside bold line), and regions where woodrats have disappeared in recent decades (stippled areas).</p></li><li><p>Raccoon RoundwormRange of raccoon roundworm in Allegheny woodrat states</p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic MangeSarcoptes scabiei miteThroughout year, but most commonly observed during winter months when hair loss can be life threatening Infections found in humans (called "scabies"), wild and domestic dogs and cats, bears and mustelids Common in red fox, wolves, and coyotes in North AmericaPredominantly impacts younger animals. Highly contagious, direct transfer of mites at any stage of their developmentIndirect transfer of mites (mechanical transfer) importance?</p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic Mange~1/64 of an inch long Pearly white and oval-shaped Spines on bodies</p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic MangePopulations of S. scabiei usually highly specific to host type, e.g., canid-adapted types specific and spread rapidly among canidsLife cycle of mite completed in burrows within epidermis of hostAdult mites mate in small pockets near the surface of the skin Hatched larvae pass through a nymphal stage and continue migration through the epidermis, becoming adults within 2 weeks </p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic MangeMites use small suckers on their legs to hold onto their hostsFemale mites burrow into the skin of the host using jaws and front legs to cut the skin Inside the burrow, the female will lay eggs. She lays 2 or 3 eggs each day, for up to 2 months.Mite larvae hatch from the eggs in 3 or 4 days Immediately crawl out of the burrow onto the surface of the skin, remain there using host hair as shelter.Both larvae and adult mites eat skin cells from their hosts</p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic MangeOily skin, crusting, hair loss, and scab formation Typically begin on elbows and towards the tips of the ears and can eventually involve large areas of the body Lesions result from physical damage to the skin, irritation caused by parasite excretions, and the allergic response of the hostHair is often lost in characteristic patterns (alopecia)Poor body condition and listlessness may be observed in severely infected animals, exhibit abnormal behaviorSeverely affected carnivores may scavenge with increased frequencySeverely affected carnivores may ultimately die from complications with mange infection or exposure to the elements that results from hair loss in winter </p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic MangeTrichodectes canisDog biting louse 2ndary infection</p></li><li><p>Sarcoptic Mange WI WolvesSarcoptic mange 1st identified in a Great Lakes wolf in 1991Since 1991, signs of mange detected in 27% of wolves High of 58% in 1992-1993 1993 = 11% decline in wolf population Some literature suggesting population impact most severe in 2nd or 3rd year of epidemic</p><p>Also other disease testing, e.g., Lyme Disease tested positive in 48% of 69 wolf serum samplesImpacts on annual pup survival?</p></li><li><p>Lyme Disease</p></li><li><p>TicksIxodes (e.g., deer tick; Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) Dermacentor (Am. Dog tick &amp; Rocky Mtn wood tick); Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii ) Amblyomma (e.g., lone star tick; Ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia) </p></li><li><p>TicksWinter tick (Dermacentor albipictus)</p></li><li><p>TicksWinter tick (Dermacentor albipictus)</p></li><li><p>Ticks</p></li><li><p>Ticks Moose begin grooming in Jan (nymph stage) mechanical and/or immunological irritation Extensive grooming through Mar-Apr = destroy winter coat Severe hair loss = gray coloration (undercoat) = "ghost moose". </p></li><li><p>TicksMean number of grooming episodes per hour performed by female moose during the four stages in the life cycle of the winter tick.</p></li><li><p>Gizzard WormParasitic nematodeGenus Amidostomum or Epomidiostomum10-35 mm, can be coiled, thread-like roundwormBeneath surface lining and grinding pads of gizzardwaterfowl</p></li><li><p>Gizzard Worm</p></li><li><p>Gizzard WormIngest larvae1st exposure on breeding groundsLarge worm burdens; reduce vigor, couple with migration, etcNo field signsPoor growth/weight gain in young birds?Emaciation, general weaknessPoor digestion</p></li><li><p>Gizzard Worm</p></li><li><p>Nasal LeechesCommon on birds north of the 30th parallel and in western North AmericaLeech (Genus Theromyzon) feeds directly on blood from the nasal passages, trachea and mucous membranes of eyesPeak infestations during spring and summer when leeches actively seeking potential hosts and reproducingWinter slows the metabolic rate and activity of leechesMany aquatic birds are affected; commonly dabbling ducks (e.g., mallard, teal, wigeon, northern shoveler, etc.) and swans </p></li><li><p>Nasal LeechesLeeches protruding from nares or attached externallyResemble small sacks of bloodBirds vigorously shaking heads, scratching bills or sneezingNasal and respiratory tract infestations = labored breathing and gaping (similar to aspergillosis infection) </p></li><li><p>Nasal Leeches</p></li></ul>

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