Medieval Weapons and War Tactics Austin Golden 6 th period 11-4-08

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Weapons The Sword The Sword - highly symbolic - made holy by the church - swords of war- swords with blades 35 inches or longer. - used by knights on horseback - nobleman, officers of state, and members of important guilds had swords of greater length carried in front of them. This was a sign of their high status.

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<ul><li><p>Medieval Weapons and War TacticsAustin Golden6th period11-4-08</p></li><li><p>WeaponsCrossbowOperated by a single soldierSlow rate of fireOperator is vulnerableLongbowOriginally a hunting weaponSix feet in lengthGreater fire than the crossbow Up to six arrows per minute Operator is also vulnerable to enemy attack</p></li><li><p>WeaponsThe Sword</p><p>- highly symbolic- made holy by the church- swords of war- swords with blades 35 inches or longer.- used by knights on horseback- nobleman, officers of state, and members of important guilds had swords of greater length carried in front of them. This was a sign of their high status.</p></li><li><p>WeaponsMace</p><p>- used to smash a knights armor- a hit to the head- the victim is stunned or killed- simple mace- could be made by driving nails into a club- this cheap weapon became popular among the peasants of Europe.</p></li><li><p>WeaponsThe Knife</p><p>- civilians carried a knife everywhere they went, even women- if you ate somewhere outside your home, your were expected to bring your own knife. - violence was the accepted method of solving problems- people took insults to their honor veryseriously- if there was a dispute, out came the knife to stab </p></li><li><p>Siege WeaponsTrebuchet</p><p>- used commonly when laying siege on a castle.- could destroy a castle and castle breach was almost assured. - limited ways of countering this weapon- launches objects that would penetrate and shatter castle walls. </p></li><li><p>Siege WeaponsBallista</p><p>- used in laying siege on a castle or fortress.- sends forth a spear- could cause the scattering of forces inside and outside the castle- this made a breach of the castle even easier</p></li><li><p>War TacticsFoot Soldiers</p><p>- During the fourteenth century, foot soldiers and archers greatly outnumbered knights.- carried sword and dagger- effective weapon was known as the pike, poleaxe, or the halberd. -This was a weapon made from the combination of a spear and axe.</p></li><li><p>War TacticsArchers</p><p>- knights feared archers most- the longbow was the deadly weapon archers used- at short range this bow and arrow could penetrate plate armor.- arrows were carried in a quiver on the hip.- if knights charged, archers behind a protective shield, would wait until knights were in range. </p></li><li><p>War TacticsBefore a Battle</p><p>- surprise was crucial- spies may have been reporting information for weeks or even months before the war.- position was also crucial- if a force was positioned on a hill, then the enemy would have to attack up a slope.- if a force was positioned in a wooded area, they might be able to hide troops until the troops were required. </p></li><li><p>War TacticsBefore a Battle</p><p>- before a battle, opposing armies might camp quite close to each other. - devices known as caltrops were spread over the ground the enemy would charge on.- caltrops were made of metal and had four sharp, pointed prongs sticking out in different directions. - these devices would be thrown down and could cause injury if trampled over by a man or horse. </p></li><li><p>War TacticsBefore a Battle</p><p>- Nobles would meet to discuss their battle plans.- also, before a battle, a commander might send his herald, or messenger, to the enemy camp to offer peace terms.- Right before battle, if there was time, a priest would say prayers and troops would cross themselves. - The king or commanding noble would also give an inspiring speech before the soldiers go off to battle.</p></li><li><p>War TacticsTactics During Battle</p><p>- tactics were often influenced by tradition- men of the same rank fought one another.- knights would fight one another and foot soldiers would fight one another- defending the standard, or flag, was important. - the standard was a rallying point for troops- to lose the standard was a disgrace and would indicate that the enemy was winning.</p></li><li><p>War TacticsAfter a Battle</p><p>- victorious foot soldiers would kill enemy troops lying on the ground injured or dying- their own injured would be carried off on shields used as stretchers.- knights captured by their enemies spent months or even years in prison until their families paid for their release.- prisoners of war were treated with civility</p></li><li><p>Bibliographies-Book IMeltzer, Milton. Weapons and Warfare. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996.</p><p>-Book IIHilliam, Paul. Medieval Weapons and Warfare. First. new York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2004.</p><p>-Internet Source I The Battlefield: Tactics and Weapons.World Eras. Ed. Jeremiah Hackett. Vol. 4: Medieval Europe, 814-1350. Detroit: Gale Group, 2002. p209-211</p><p>-Internet Source IIBenjamin, Garfield. "Threat of Medieval Siege Weapons." Medieval Enthusiasts #1 Resource for Medieval Warfare. 2004. 4 Nov 2008 . </p></li></ul>