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Medieval Christian Monks Understand the role of Christian monks in preserving and creating illuminated manuscripts in scriptoria Examine the layout of a medieval monastery 1 Slide 2 9th C. ms. And 20th C. model St. Gall, Switzerland ca. 819 Slide 3 11-19B Abbey of Saint-Riquier, Centula, France, 790799, in an engraving of 1612 after a lost 11th- century manuscript illumination. Bibliothque Nationale, Paris. 3 Slide 4 4 Figure 11-20 Westwork of the abbey church, Corvey, Germany, 873 885. Slide 5 Abbey church of St. Pantaleon Cologne, Germany ca. 966-980 Slide 6 Torhalle (gatehouse) Lorsch, Germany 9th century Typical Carolingian style architecture Slide 7 Slide 8 8 Ottonian Art (10 th century Germany) Examine the architecture associated with the Ottonians, its formal origins and its later influence. Understand the architectural and free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians. Compare and contrast Ottonian and Carolingian art Examine the styles of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts. Charlemagnes ineffective grandsons divided the empire into three parts. This caused the exponential growth of feudalism Weakened Empire was left vulnerable to invasions. German ruler, Otto I, married the Lombard kings widow, ruled over much of Italy and was crowned emperor by the pope. This led to years of continued conflict with the papacy and local Italian rulers and the Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire was stabilized by three successive emperors named Otto. Slide 9 9 Architecture of the Ottonians Examine the architecture, its formal origins and its later influence. Slide 10 10 Figure 11-21 Nave of the church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961 973. Slide 11 11 Figure 11-22 Saint Michaels, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001 1031. Slide 12 12 Figure 11-23 Longitudi nal section (top) and plan (bottom) of the abbey church of Saint Michaels, Hildeshei m, Germany, 1001 1031. Slide 13 11-23A Nave (looking east) of Saint Michaels, Hildesheim, 10011031. 13 Slide 14 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031 Slide 15 15 Ottonian Sculpture Understand the architectural sculpture associated with St. Michaels at Hildesheim, Germany. Examine the free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians. Slide 16 16 Figure 11-24 Doors with relief panels (Genesis, left door; life of Christ, right door), commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michaels, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze, 16 6 high. Dom-Museum, Hildesheim. Slide 17 11-25 God accusing Adam and Eve, detail of the left door of Saint Michaels, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze, 1 10 1/8 high. Dom-Museum, Hildesheim. 17 Slide 18 11-26 Otto I presenting Magdeburg Cathedral to Christ, from Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany, 962 968. Ivory, 5 X 4 1/2". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (gift of George Blumenthal, 1941). 18 Slide 19 19 Figure 11-24A Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michaels, Hildesheim, Germany, ca. 10151022. Bronze, 12 6 tall. Dom- Museum, Hildesheim. Slide 20 11-27 Christ blessing Otto II and Theophanu, 972973. Ivory, 7 1/8 X 4. Muse National du Moyen Age, Paris. 20 Slide 21 21 Figure 11-28 Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany, ca. 970. Painted wood, height of figure 6 2. Cathedral, Cologne. Large scale Rounded forms. Expressive realism, a hallmark of German art, in its depiction of suffering Slide 22 22 Ottonian Illuminated Manuscripts Examine the appearance of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts. Notice the golden backgrounds and linear figural styles in Ottonian illuminated manuscripts --- Ottonian leaders developed significant contacts with the Byzantine empire. Slide 23 23 Figure 11- 29 Otto III enthroned, folio 24 recto of the Gospel Book of Otto III, from Reichenau, Germany, 9971000. Tempera on vellum, 1 1 x 9 3/8. Bayerische Staatsbiblio thek, Munich. Slide 24 24 Figure 11-30 Annunciation to the Shepherds, folio in the Lectionary of Henry II, from Reichenau, Germany, 10021014. Tempera on vellum, approx. 1 5 X 1 1. Bayerische Staatsbiblioth ek, Munich. Slide 25 11-31 Abbess Uta dedicating her codex to the Virgin, folio 2 recto of the Uta Codex, from Regensburg, Germany, ca. 1025. Tempera on parchment, 9 5/8 X 5 1/8. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich. 25 Slide 26 11-29A Jesus washing the feet of Saint Peter, folio 237 recto of the Gospel Book of Otto III, 997 1000. Tempera on vellum, 1 1 X 9 3/8. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich. 26 Slide 27 27 Discussion Questions In what ways did medieval European art and architecture depart from classical Roman art and architecture? Did any of the civilizations retain characteristics of Roman art and architecture? Explain. Compare the three major manuscript styles that developed in the Middle Ages. What previous styles of art influenced medieval European art?