Medieval and Renaissance Music

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Medieval and Renaissance Music. MOTET. LATIN WORDS A CAPPELLA (unaccompanied music) HARMONY MODAL (not major or minor but based on one of the seven modes) IRREGULAR METRES (follows the rhythm of the words) MELISMA (several notes to one syllable) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Medieval and Renaissance MusicMOTETLATIN WORDSA CAPPELLA (unaccompanied music)HARMONY MODAL (not major or minor but based on one of the seven modes)IRREGULAR METRES (follows the rhythm of the words) MELISMA (several notes to one syllable)POLYPHONIC (several parts sung at the same time) Sacred hymn

Medieval PeriodUp to 1450The earliest music we know. Much of the music was not written down.Monophonic texture.Use of modes (dorian, lydian, etc).Pattern of the Latin words used as the rhythm.

Medieval MusicDuring the Medieval period most music was not written down. Composers who did write their music down usually worked for the Catholic Church. The Church could afford to buy the materials the composers would need to write music. People outside the Church were too poor to buy what was needed to compose music.Music notation appeared around the year 900, but it only showed the pitch. It didn't tell you anything about the rhythm. A few hundred years would pass before the notes showed the rhythm.Pope Gregory IAs music became more complicated, someone needed to make up some rules for writing down music. That person was Pope Gregory I. Pope Gregory l declared that music be standardized. That means that musicians and composers had to use the same rules when writing and performing their music. This music can still be heard today. It is called Gregorian chant.

PlainchantAlso known as Plainsong and Gregorian chant. Unaccompanied melody set to words of the Roman Catholic liturgy, such as the Mass. Plainchants are modal and have no regular metre. They follow the rhythm of the Latin words.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN7lT7ojVl08

The Renaissance Period1400-1600The Renaissance Period1450-1600Renaissance means rebirth. This period saw a rebirth in knowledge. Science and the arts were becoming more important.Christopher Columbus discovered America, Michelangelo was painting the Sistine Chapel, William Shakespeare was writing plays and Leonardo da Vinci was making great advancements in art, music and science.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cy2Dg-ncWoY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZmiEJzp-iYM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jm_7hEUHMpc&feature=relatedCharacteristics of the PeriodPolyphony voice parts were given equal importance and share the melody. Imitative polyphony.A cappella singing. Growth of instrumental, dance and secular music. Antiphonal effects. Development of musical harmony and use of cadences.

15AntiphonalMusic for more than one choir/group. One side answers phrases from the other side with rich, powerful effects produced when they combine.Originates from Venice using contrasting textures chordal and imitation, blend and contrast. Contrasts between groups high and low, loud and soft dynamics, solo and groups, bright and dark timbres (tone colours)Fills the entire space of a Cathedral and so completes mans visual and aural depiction of Heaven on earth. 16Sacred Music

17MassThe Roman Catholic service of the Mass has had A great influence on the development of music. High mass (Missa Solemnis) has 5 passages of Plainsong (the proper of the Mass) and 5 extended passages (the Ordinary of the Mass)which are often set in an elaborate choral way. The Ordinary is the Section referred to as the Mass in a musical sense.

18MassFeatures of the Mass include Latin text and polyphonic texture, and it is usually sung a cappella. Originally used in church worship, but in later years became a large-scale work for chorus, soloists and orchestra. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRsDgtqtx5Qhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcKasCiX26Y

195 Main Sections of the MassKyrie Lord Have MercyGloria Glory be to God on HighCredo I believeSanctus - Holy, holy (often include the Benedictus)Agnus Dei Lamb of God

A special setting is the Requiem (Mass for the dead).

Think King George Cuts Sandwiches Buttering Always. 20

MotetA sacred choral work with Latin text and Contrapuntal (polyphonic) texture. It was usually sung a cappella.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgKLIMIhh1c21AnthemSimilar to the Motet but sung in English.

A Verse Anthem includes the organ and is written for soloists with sections for full choir.22Secular Music

23MadrigalA non-religious work, polyphonic in style, using imitation. Features of madrigal include text in English, use of word painting, through-composed music, usually sung a cappella. Listen to the word painting in John Farmers Fair Phyllis:Fair Phyllis I saw sitting all alone sung by a solo soprano before the another three voices complete the quartet.Up and down the pitches give the illusion of moving up and down.

The music has an irregular metre moving between simple and compound time.AyreAn ayre (air or song) is a madrigal which can be performed by a solo voice with lute accompaniment; by solo voice accompanied by other instruments; or with all parts sung by voices with or without accompaniment.

BallettA type of madrigal in strophic form which was originally danced to. It features a fa-la-la refrain at the end of each verse.

Instruments of the Renaissance PeriodConsort of viols

Lute

RebecWoodwind Instruments

Rackett double reed bass instrument

Crumhorn double reed, range of just over an octave

Cornett similar to a recorder but played with a trumpet-like mouthpiece.

Recorders

VirginalClavichord

The PavanA Renaissance court dance linked with the Galliard. The pavan is slow and stately with two beats in the bar.

GalliardA Renaissance court dance which follows the Pavan. A galliard is quick and lively with three beats in a bar.

Other Concepts...

34Word PaintingThe music is used to describe the words.Listen to As Vesta was from Latmos Hill by Thomas Weelkes. Listen to how word painting is achieved on the following phrases:Running down amain descending scalesTwo by two two voicesThree by three three voicesMelismaA melodious flourish of notes sung to a single syllable.36TextureMonophonicHomophonicContrapuntal (polyphonic)AntiphonalImitationCanonContinuous Texture37Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear:

MonophonicAntiphonal

HomophonicStrophic

Gregorian ChantCredo

MadrigalListen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear:

BallettAntiphonal

MotetStrophic

Madrigal ProperMass

Through composedListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

KyrieAnacrusis

MotetMelisma

DiminutionAntiphonal

AugmentationListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

ImitationSyllabic

AnthemContrapuntal

MadrigalAgnus Dei

Verse AnthemListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

AyreConsort of viols

ContrapuntalConsort of recordersModalWord paintingHomophonicListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

AyreMadrigal

MadrigalMotet

Word PaintingChange fromsimple to compoundChange from time compound to simple timeListen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear:

AntiphonalCompound time

PavanGalliard

OvertureViols

BallettListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

TrillGalliard

BallettPavan

RebecLute

VirginalListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

LuteWord Painting

MotetImitation

AyreHomophonic

MadrigalListen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear:

TrillThroughcomposed

BallettConsort

HomophonicStrophic

AugmentationListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

GalliardMotet

CrumhornContrapuntal

HomophonicConsort of recordersConsort of violsListen to the following excerpt and tick three Boxes to describe what you hear:

A cappellaMass

StrophicMelisma

RebecMadrigal

DiminutionListen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear:

AnthemMadgrial MotetImitation

Verse AnthemSanctus BenedictusThrough ComposedListen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear:

ViolsMadrigal

HomophonicCrumhorn

ContrapuntalConsort of recordersProse Question 1There are three types of madrigals, the madrigal proper, ballett and ayre. The ballett is ________ in form whereas the madrigal proper is ___________. The ballett also contains a _______ refrain. The madrigal proper has a ___________ texture. An ayre is usually __________, often by a ______.Prose Question 2The Mass is sung in ________. The texture is __________ with many voices singing in ________ of each other. The music is unaccompanied (___________).

A motet is sung in _________. It features several voices singing in _________ of each other with a ___________ texture. An anthem is sung in _________ and a ________ features an accompaniment (often the organ).Prose Question 3When composing a Mass or motet, the composer often splits the choir in two or has more than one choir. He can then create a dialogue between the different voices. This creates an ____________ effect.

Two important dances from the Renaissance period were the ________ and _________. The __________ is a slow dance with _______ beats in a bar. This is followed by a __________ which is _______ with ______ beats in a bar.Medieval and Renaissance MusicSacred MusicSecular MusicCharacteristicsInstrumental Music

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