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Pharmaceutical Importance of 5-membered Heterocycles

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<ul><li> 1. PresentationPharmaceutical Importance of 5-memberedHeterocyclesPresented BySamya SayantanId:121-29-381Batch: 7thSec: ADepartment of PharmacyDaffodil International University</li></ul> <p> 2. Introduction A heterocyclic compound is a cyclic compound thathas atoms of at least two different elements asmembers of its ring. The counterparts ofheterocyclic compounds are homocyclic compound ,the rings of which are made of a single element. Although heterocyclic compounds may be inorganic,most contain at least one carbon. 3. Five membered Heterocycles The most common heterocycles are those havingfive membered rings and containing heteroatomsof Nitrogen(N), Oxygen(O), Sulfur(S). Examples:NH O SPyrrole Furan Thiophene 4. Pyrrole Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organiccompound a five-membered ring with the formulaC4H4NH. Substituted derivatives are also calledpyrroles.NH Pyrrole derivatives drug: Atorvastatin, Ageliferin,Elopiprazole 5. Structureatorvastatin ageliferinelopiprazole 6. Pharmaceutical ImportancePyrrole derivatives drug mainly used in- Treatment of dyslipidemia &amp; the prevention ofcardiac disease. Antibacterial agent Antipsychotic drug 7. furan Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound,consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring withfour carbon atoms and one oxygen. Furan derivatives drug: Furazolidone,Nitrofurazone, Nitrofurantoin 8. Structure:furazolidone nitrofurazonenitrofurantoin 9. Pharmaceutical Importance Used to treat diarrhoea and enteritis causedby bacteria or protozoan infections. Batericidal compound used as an antibiotic mostcommonly in the form of ointments. Used as antiparasitic drug. 10. Thiophene Thiophene also commonly called thiofuran, isa heterocyclic compoundS Consisting of a flat five-membered ring, it isaromatic as indicated by its extensive substitutionreactions. 11. Pharmaceutical ImportanceThiophenes are important heterocyclic compoundsthat are widely used as building blocks in manyagrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. The benzenering of a biologically active compound may oftenbe replaced by a thiophene without loss ofactivity. This is seen in examples such asthe NSAID lornoxicam the thiophene analogof piroxicam. 12. Imidazole Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula(CH)2N(NH)CH. It is a colourless solid that dissolvesin water to give mildly alkaline solution.NNH Imidazole drug: Ketoconazole, Miconazole,Clotrimazole 13. Structure:ketoconazole miconazoleClotrimazole 14. Pharmaceutical Importance Imidazole derivatives are potent antifungal agent. It is also used in the treatment of mycotic infectionof skin. 15. thiazole Thiazole is a heterocyclic compound that containsboth sulfur and nitrogen; the term 'thiazole' alsorefers to a large family of derivatives. Thiazole itself is a pale yellow liquid with a pyridine-likeodor and the molecular formula C3H3NS. Thethiazole ring is notable as a component ofthe vitamin thiamine(B1). 16. Thiazole drug:Thiabendazole meloxicam 17. Pharmaceutical Importance Used in the disease of dutch elm disease Used as paracitiside Angiogenesis Inhibitor Used as anti microbial agent-sulfathiazole Used as antidepressant drug-pramipexole 18. pyrazole Pyrazole is the organic compound withthe formula C3H3N2H. It is a heterocycle characterized by a 5-memberedring of three carbon atoms and two adjacentnitrogen centres. 19. Pyrazole derivative drug:celecoxib Phenazone 20. Pharmaceutical Importance In medicine, derivatives of pyrazoles are used fortheir analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic,antiarrhythmic, tranquilizing, muscle relaxing,anticonvulsant, monoamineoxidase inhibiting,antidiabetic and antibacterial activities. 21. Oxazole Oxazoles are heterocyclic aromatic compoundscontaining an oxygen atom and a nitrogen atomseparated by one carbon atom. Oxazole derivatives have become increasinglyimportant because of their use as intermediates forthe preparation of new biological materials. 22. Pharmaceutical ImportanceThe wide range of biological activities of oxazolesincludes anti-inflammatory, analgesic,antibacterial, antifungal, hypoglycemic,antiproliferative, anti-tuberculosis, musclerelaxant and HIV inhibitor activity. </p>

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