mechanisms of evolution and their effects on populations part 2 sbi3u evolution - 8

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  • Slide 1
  • Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effects on Populations Part 2 SBI3U Evolution - 8
  • Slide 2
  • Factors That Cause Evolutionary Change Mutations Gene Flow (migration) Non-random Mating Genetic Drift Natural Selection
  • Slide 3
  • Populations have a wide range of phenotypes and genotypes Some individuals in a population produce more offspring than others Selective forces such as competition and predation affect populations As a result, some individuals are more likely to ________ and ______________ than others
  • Slide 4
  • Natural Selection If an organism has even one allele that gives a slight, yet consistent, selective advantage, the frequency of that allele in the population will increase from one generation to the next Less favourable alleles may be lost Thus, natural selection causes changes in the ________________________ of a population, which can lead to evolutionary change
  • Slide 5
  • Natural Selection Several types of natural selection affect the frequency of a heritable trait in a population: - stabilizing selection - directional selection - disruptive selection
  • Slide 6
  • Stabilizing Selection -Favours an ____________ phenotype - Acts against __________ variants of the phenotype The most common phenotype (the intermediate phenotype) is made more common in the population by removing the extreme forms. This type of selection: - Reduces ______________ - Improves adaptation of the population to aspects of the environment that remain constant
  • Slide 7
  • Directional Selection - Favours the phenotypes at one ________________ over the other - Common during times of environmental__________ or when a population ___________ to a new habitat that has different environmental conditions and niches to exploit Examples: - The changes in coloration of peppered moths - Antibiotic resistance in infection- causing bacteria
  • Slide 8
  • Disruptive Selection - Takes place when the __________ of a range of phenotypes are favoured over intermediate phenotypes - Thus, intermediate phenotypes can be eliminated from the population Example: The extreme size differences of mature male coho salmon. The smaller phenotype averages 500g, and the larger phenotype averages 4500g. This difference in size reflects the means by which each phenotype gains access to females. The smaller specialize in a sneaking technique to fertilize eggs. The larger specialize in fighting for access to eggs.
  • Slide 9
  • Practice Problem: Identify the Type of Selection The graph below shows a representation of the changes that have occurred in a population of bentgrass over a period of time. Use your understanding of the three types of natural selection (stabilizing, directional, disruptive) to identify the type of selection that is acting on this bentgrass population.
  • Slide 10
  • Sexual Selection The different phenotypes of the male coho salmon are also a specific example of natural selection referred to as sexual selection. In general, sexual selection involves: -Competition between males through combat or visual displays -Females choosing their mates
  • Slide 11
  • Sexual Selection Males and females of many animal species often have very different __________ characteristics, such as colourful plumage in male birds and antlers in male deer. This difference between males and females is called ________ _____________
  • Slide 12
  • Speciation: How Species Form SBI3U Evolution - 8
  • Slide 13
  • These two zebras look very similar but they are actually two different species. How is a species defined? A biological species is a population or group of populations in nature whose individual members can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring offspring that can also interbreed. Grevys ZebraPlains Zebra
  • Slide 14
  • We learned that various factors cause changes within populations. These factors are: -Mutations -Gene flow (migration) -Non-random Mating -Genetic Drift -Natural Selection These factors are what cause microevolution to occur.
  • Slide 15
  • Speciation Formation of new species from existing species Occurs when some members of a sexually reproducing population change so much that they are no longer able to produce________, _________ offspring with members of the original population The formation of new species is sometimes called _________________
  • Slide 16
  • Speciation Two populations may become reproductively isolated over time (meaning they become two species) if there is little or no ______ ________ between populations. These reproductive isolating mechanisms may be ____________ or ______________.
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Pre-zygotic Isolating Mechanisms Either inhibit mating between species or prevent fertilization of eggs if individuals from different species attempt to mate There are 5 types of pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms: -Behavioural -Habitat -Temporal -Mechanical -Gametic
  • Slide 19
  • Behavioural: Any special _______ or _____________ that are species specific prevent interbreeding with closely related species Some examples of signals/behaviours: Songs of birds, courtship rituals of elk and the chemical signals (phermones) of insects Habitat: Two species may live in the same general region, but in different habitats, so they may encounter each other rarely, if at all
  • Slide 20
  • Temporal: Many species are kept separate by temporal (_________ ) barriers Example: two species may inhabit the same habitat but mate at different times of the day Mechanical: Species that are closely related may attempt to mate but fail to achieve fertilization because they are _____________ incompatible Gametic: If gametes (egg and sperm) from different species do meet, gametic isolation ensures they will rarely fuse to form a ________
  • Slide 21
  • Practice Question Based on the description given, what type of pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms is operating? a)The sperm of one species may not be able to survive in the environment of the female reproductive tract of another species. b)The eastern and western meadowlarks are identical in shape, coloration and habitat but have different mating call songs
  • Slide 22
  • Post-zygotic Isolating Mechanisms In rare cases in nature, the sperm of one species successfully fertilizes an egg of another species and a zygote is produced Post-zygotic isolating mechanisms prevent these hybrid zygotes from developing into viable, fertile individuals. There are 3 types: -Hybrid Inviability -Hybrid Sterility -Hybrid Breakdown
  • Slide 23
  • Hybrid Inviability: Genetic incompatibility of the interbred species may stop ____________ of the hybrid zygote (normal mitosis cannot occur) Hybrid Sterility: Sometimes two species can mate and produce hybrid offspring. The hybrid is often __________ because meiosis fails to produce normal gametes (different chromosomal numbers)
  • Slide 24
  • Hybrid Breakdown: In some cases, the first generation hybrids are _______ and _______. When these hybrids mate with each other or with an individual from one of the parent species, offspring of the second generation hybrid are either ________ or __________.
  • Slide 25
  • Practice Question Based on the description given, what type of post- zygotic isolating mechanism is operating? a)Hybrid embryos between sheep and goats die in early development before birth b)Different species of cotton plants can produce fertile hybrids, but the offspring of the hybrids die as seeds or in early development c)A mule is the offspring of a donkey and a horse. Mules are sterile.