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4

LAW DICTIONARY,ADAPTED TO THE

CONSTITUTION AND LAWSOP TEl

-

UNITED STATES OF AMERICAAND OP THE

Stieral ,Statts of tie meritanWITH

anion;

REFERENCES TO THE CIVIL AND OTHER SYSTEMS OF FOREIGN LAW.

BY JOHN

10 -0111-7.114 R.'

Ignorstis termini, ignoratar et ars.Co. Lin. 2 a. Je sais qua cheque seienee et cheque art a see termss propres, Woman an ("emus= des hommes.PLIVIIRT.

SIXTH EDITION, REVISED ) IMPROVED ; AND GREATLY ENLARGED.

VOL, II.

PHILADELPHIA:

CHILDS & PETERSON, 124 ARCH STREET. 1856.t.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eiett hundred and tbirty-nine,BY JOHN BOUVIER, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

L3017FAUG 194

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, BY JOHN BOUVIER, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Bleared According to Act of Congress, in the year one ibousand eight hundred and forty-eight, . . : . . : ' ." : : ' RV II:PHN R OUVIE, ': . ; .'; R . . , - In the Clerk's Office of the IlstrikcCourt for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

Entered according to Act of Congress, In the year one thousand eight hundred and fitly-two, BY ELIZA BOUVIER Amp ROBERT E. PETERSON, Teusress, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Yeknsylvania.

DEACON & PETERSON, PRINTERS. 05 sown THIRD

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124

MAX

MAXActor qui contra regudarra quid ruldnxii, non eu audiendus. He ought not to be heard who ad-

MAXIM. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law universally admitted, as being just and consonant with reason. 2. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Bl. Com . 68. They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or common law of the land ; and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, when the judges have determined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges and not the jury. Terms do Ley ; Doet. & Stud. Dial. I, c. 8. Maxims of the law are holden for law, and all other oases that may be applied to them shall be taken for granted. 1 Inst. 11. 67; 4 Rep. See 1 Com. e. 68; Plowd. 27, b. 3. The application of the maxim to the case before the court, is generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is to ascertain how the maxim arose, and to consider whether the ease to which it is applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an apparently genera! rule. 4. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common law are dangerous. 2 Inst. 210. The following are some of the more important maxims.A comment observantia non eat retake:leen. There should be no departure from common observance or usage. Co. Litt. 188. l'impossiblo nut west tins. No one is bound to do what is impossible. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 601. A verbie legis non est recedendam. From the words of the law there mist be no departure. Broom's Max. 288; 5 Rep. 119; Wing. Max. 25. Absentia tilts qui reipeblice cause abut, risque ei, segue alii dame= ease Jebel. The absence of him who is employed in the service of the state, ought not to be burdensome to him nor to others. Dig. 50, 17, 140. Absolute seat/alio expositore non indiget. An absolute unqualified sentence or proposition, needs no expositor. 2 Co. Inst. 533. Abundans cautela non nocei. Abundant caution does no harm. 11 Co. G. Accessorise esprit saturant sue principle/is. An accessary follows the nature of his principal. 3 Co. Inst. 349. Accessorise; son dual sad aequitur trim principals. The accessary does not lead, but follow its principal. Co. Litt. 152. Accuaare nano debut se, nisi carom Deo. No one ought to accuse himself, unless before God. Hard. 139. Atli() exteriora indicant mterfora *ureic'. External actions show internal secrets. 8 Co. R. 146. ..detio non dater non darnniflarta. An action is not given to him who has received no damages. Adio personalis moriter cum persona A personal action dies with the person. This must be understood of an action for a tort only.

vances a proposition contrary to the rules of law. Actor mediur forum rei. The plaintiff must follow the forum of the thing in dispute. Actor. nos probante reus absolvitur. When the plaintiff does not prove his case, the defendant is absolved. Adzes Dei sernini facit injuriam. The act of God does no injury ; that is, no one is responsible for inevitable accidents. 2 Blacks. Corn. 122. SeeAd of God. rictus incepts, cejsis perfedio pendet, ex volutitais partiurn, revocari potent; si alarm pendet ex volestate terlia persona, eel ex contingenti, reenraxi ens palest. An act already begun, the completion of

which depends upon the will of the parties, may be recalled; but if it depend on the consent of a third person, or of a contingency, it cannot be recalled. Bacon'. Max. Reg. 20. Jaws me invito facts*, non est mews wins. An act done by me against my will, is not my act. .dchis non rerun facie, uisi mens tit rea. An act does not make a person guilty, unless the intention be also guilty. This maxim applies only to criminal cases; in civil matters it is otherwise. 2 Bowe. 'net. n. 2211. Adria legitimi !IOU recipient modem. Acts required by law to be done, admit of no qualification. Hob. 153. Aches legis nemini facit injuriam. The act of the law does no one an injury. 5 Co. 116. Ad proximurn antecedens fiat relatio, nisi impediatur enteritia. The antecedent bears relation to what follows next, unless it destroys the meaning of the sentence. Ad questiones fadi non responded judices ; ad Fuczationes legis non respondent juratores. The judges do not answer to questions of fact; the jury do not answer to questions of law. Co. Litt.e95.

lEstimatio prateriti delicti ex postremo facto nenquarn midi. The estimation of a crime committed never increases from a subsequent fact. Bac. Max. Reg. 8. Ambiguilas verbornm latent verifications suppletar; tiara quod ex facto culler embiguesn verificer, None facti tollitur. A bidden ambiguity of the

words is supplied by the verification, for whatever ambiguity arises concerning the deed itself is removed by the verification of the deed. Bacon's Max. Reg. 23. Aqua cedil solo. The water yields or accompanies the soil. The grant of the moiler land carries the water. Aqua cured it debit enrrerr. Water runs and ought to run. 3 Rawle, PA, 88. sEquilas agit in perm:mean. Equity arty upon the person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3733. &quite.' sequitur legem. Equity follows the law. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 84; 3 Wooddes. Lect. 479, 482. 2Eireitim at lximon, eat lex /mm. What is good and equal, is the law of laws. Hob. 224. ..11ifirmati, non seganti incunehil probatio. The proof lies upon him who affirms, not on him who denies. Allud eat rehire, Oita tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent another. Intermedics petitio non eel aadierida. An alternate petition is not to be heard- 5 Co. 40.

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MAXAdams ad se omne jus dud:. It is to the intention that all law applies. -Main= hominis est anima seriph. The intention of the party is the soul of the instrument. 3 Buistr. 67. -Spices faith non runt jure. Points of law are net laws. Co. Litt. 304; 8 Scott, N. P. R. 713. .arbibiern rat judicium. An award is a judgment. Jenk Cent. 137. -argent: slum d majori ad minas negative non valet; raid a cowers. An argument from the greater to the less is of no force negatively ; conversely it is. Jenk. Cent. 281. afrgpsynenium d division's est fortis:imam in jure. An argument arising from a division is most powerful in law. 6 Co. 60. arguments's:1 ab incomenienti eat validam in legs; its non, perrnittit aliquod incoeverdens. An argument drawn from what is inconvenient is good in law, because the law will not permit any inconvenience. Co. Litt. 258. lemma/um ab plarimum valet is lege. An argument deduced from authority greatly 'veils in law. Co. Litt. 92. -frgurrientrem ab authoritaie eat fortissimutn in lege. An argument drawn from authority in the strongest in law. Co. Litt. 254. .argementurn d rimili valet in lege. An ergomeet drown from a similar case, or analogy, avails in law. Co. Litt. 191. 4acapia verborem santjudiceisdigna. A twisting of language is unworthy of a judge. Rob. 343. Bona fides non pediher, let his idem e.vigatar. Natural equity or good faith do not allow us to demand twice the payment of the same thing. Dig. 50, 17, 57. Boni judith eat ampliare juriedictionem. It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction; that is, big remedial authority. Chan. Prec. 329; 1 Wile. 284 ; 9 M. & Wela. 818. Boni judicis est causes litiism derimere. It is the duty of a good judge to remove the cause of litigation. 2 Co. Inst. 304. Bone= defradentis es Werth causd, malum ex road defedu. The good of a defendant arises from a perfect case, his harm from some defect. 11 Co. 68. Bone= fader secnindurn agleam at &mum juditat, d equitalem strider juri prafert. A good judge decides according to justice and right, and prefers equity to strict law. Co. Litt. 24. Balsam necessarium extra terminunecessitatis non est helium. Necessary good is not good beyond the bounds of necessity. Hob. 144.,

MAX

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Caveat eruptor. Let the purchaser beware. Carradam eat ci fra.gmentie. Beware of fragments. Bacon, Aph. 26.

Ceesante cars, cemat effeets4. The cause ceasing, the effect must c