MAURITIUS SUGAR INDUSTRY - SUGAR INDUSTRY ... Sugar manufacture and sugar cane by-products ... and the Sugar Cane Planting Community. Its programme ofresearch is

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  • MAURITIUS SUGAR INDUSTRY

    RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    ANNUAL REPORT 1972

    Printed bv :

    Claude Marrier d'Unienvill eTHE MAURITIU S PRINTING CV. LTD .

    37, Sir William Newton Street

    Port-Louis - M auritius

    1973

  • HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN

    An outstanding event occurred In March 1972 when Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II wasgraciously pleased to visit Mauritius.

    Her Majest y, accompanied by His Ro yal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh , visited MonDesert-Alrna where the royal party wer e co nd ucted on a tour of the sugar factor y and an exhi bition,co mp rising stands of The Mauritius Sug ar Producers' Association, Planters ' Associations, the SugarSynd ica te, the Chamber of Agri culture and the Mau ritius Sugar Industry Research In stitute, illu stratingthe structure and achievements of the su gar ind us try o f Mauritius.

    Her Majest y the Qu een a nd His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburg vrsu mg the s tand of the M.S.I.R .1.at Mon Desert-Alrna, 24th Mar ch, 1972

  • CONTENTS

    MEMBERS EXECUTIVE BOARD

    MEMBERS RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    STAFF . . .

    INTRODUCTION

    GENERAL REPORT

    TECHNICAL REPORT

    General

    Sugar Cane

    The 1972 crop

    Breeding

    Agronomy and plant physiology

    Diseases

    Pests

    Weed s

    Sugar manufacture and sugar cane by-products

    Potato

    Groundnut

    Maize

    Ginger

    Soya Bean

    Page

    3

    3

    4

    7

    11

    21

    21

    27

    27

    30

    38

    42

    46

    47

    49

    57

    63

    67

    70

    71

  • STATISTICAL TABLES

    I. Ar ea under sugar cane, 1968-1972II . Sugar production, 1968-1972

    III. Yield of cane, 1968-1972IV. Average sucrose % cane, 1968-1972V. Yield of sugar, 1968-1972

    VI. Monthly rainfall, 1968-1972VII. Monthly air temperatures, 1968-1972

    VIII. Highest sustained wind speed during one hourIX. Highest sustained wind speed during one hour, cyclone yearsX. Cane va rieties, 1965-1972

    XI. Cane varieties on miller-planters' land, 1968-1972XII. Ar ea harvested and yields, 1972 crop

    XIII. Evolution of cane quality, 1972 cropXIV. Comparative mid-harvest dates, 1968-1972XV. Summary of chemical control data, 1972

    i) Cane crushed and sugar producedii) Cane, bagasse and juices

    iii) Filter cake, syrup, pH, final molasses and sugariv) Mas secuitesv) Milling work, sucrose losses and balan ce, recoveries

    APPENDIX: The Mauritius Herbarium

    III

    III

    IV

    V

    V

    VI

    VI

    VII

    VIII

    VIII

    IX

    X

    XI

    XII

    XIII

    XIV

    XV

    xvixvii

  • MEMBERS EXECUTIVE BOARD

    Mr. J. Maurice Paturau, C. B.E. , Chairman , representing the Chamber of Agriculture

    Mr. RD. Roy , representing Governm ent (Jan .-May)

    Mr. R. Burrenchobay, representing the Ministry of Agriculture (June-Dec.)

    Mr. K . Venk at achellum, representing the Ministry of Finance (June-Dec.)

    Mr. M. Bagwant, representing the Mini stry of Economic Planning & Development (June-Dec .)

    Mr. E. Serie s

    }Mr. S.D. de R. de St. Antoine representing factory ownersMr. G. Langlois

    Mr . G.H. Wiehe , representing large plant ers

    Mr. G. Beeharry

    Mr. R. Seeruttun} representing small planters

    MEMBERS RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Mr. R. Antoine , Chairman

    Mr. RD. Roy, representing the Agricultural Services of the M inistry of Agriculture

    Mr. K . Lutchmeenar aidoo, represent ing the Extension Service of the Ministry of Agriculture

    Mr. A. Harel , representing the Chamb er of Agriculture

    Mr.

    Mr.

    C. Cou acaud }

    F. North Coombesrepresenting the Societe de Technologie Agricole et Su criere

    and the senior staff of the Research Institute.

  • STAFF

    Director

    R. Anto ine, a .se. (Lond .), A.R.C.S., D ip. Ag . Sei. (Can tab .) , D ip. Ag r. (Maur.)

    Assi stant Director

    J . D . de R. de Sai nt Antoine, 8 .S. ( L.S.U.), Dip. A gr. (Maur.)

    Plant Breeding and Biometry

    Plant Breeder and BiometricianAssociate Plant BreederAssistant Plant BreederAssistant BiometricianField Assistant

    Plant Pathology

    Chief Plant PathologistAssociate Plant PathologistExperimental OfficerSCientific Assistants

    Entomology

    Chief EntomologistAssistant Entomologists

    Botany

    BotanistAssistant Botanist

    Scientific Assistant

    Weed Agronomy

    Weed AgronomistScientific Assistants

    l .A. Lalouette, D ip. Agr. (Ma ur.)P.R . HermeJin, Di p. A gr. (Maur .)Z. Peerun, B.Se. (Wa les) (as from J.10.72)L iC.y. Li m Shin Chong, 8 .Se. (Le iceste r)S. Duchenne

    e. Ricau d, B.Se. , Ph.D . (Lond .), D.I.C.l .S. Felix, Dip. Agr . (Maur.)S. SuIlivanA. P.F. Cha n Wan Fon g, D ip. Agr. (Ma ur.)P . Ferre

    l .R. Williams, B.Se., M.Se., Ph.D. (Br isto l), DJ.C. , F.r. BioI.H . Dove, D ip. Agr, (Mau r.)M.A. Rajabalee

    H. R . l ulien , B.Se., Ph.D. (Reading)G .c. Soo prarnanie n, B.Se., M.Se. (Lo nd.j, Dip. Agr, (Ma ur.)

    (as from 16.6.72)A. Bastide

    G . Me In tyre, Dip . Agr. (Maur. )l .e. Aut reyl . Pitchen

  • Sugar Cane Agronomy

    Chief AgriculturalistsAssociate Agriculturalists

    Senior Field OfficerField OfficerTechnical Officer

    Food Crop Agronomy

    Technical Officer ilcAssistant Agronomists

    Experimental OfficerScientific AssistantTemporary Asst . Agronomist

    Soils and Plant Nutrition

    Chief ChemistSenior Assistant Chemists

    Assistant Chemists

    Scientific Assistants

    Sugar Technology

    Sugar TechnologistChemistSenior Assistant ChemistAssistant Sugar Technologists

    Scientific Assistants

    Temporary Sugar Technologist

    Library

    Librarian

    G. Rouillard, Dip. Agr. (M aur. )M. Hardy, Dip. Agr. (Ma ur.)R . Ng Ying Sheung, D ip. A gr . ( Maur.)L. Thatcher, Dip . Agr. (Ma ur.)J .R. M outia, Dip. Agr. (Maur. )G . Mazery, Dip. Agr. (Maur.)

    R. Mamet, Dip . Agr. (M aur .)A.R. Pillay, B.Se. (Q.U.B.) , M.Se. Agr. (Sydney).

    Dip. Agr. Micro (Sydney)

    A.J . Vaudin, N.D. Agri, E.J.e. Carrnagnole, Dip. Agr. (Maur.)H . T oohirnZ. Peerun, B.Se. (Wales) (until 30.9.72)

    Y. Wong You Cheong, B.Se., B. Agr. , Ph .D . (Q.U.B.) , F.R.I.C .P.Y. Chan, B.Se., rvLSe. (Lond.) , A.R.l. C.L. Ross, Grad . R.L C., Dip. Agr . (Maur.)P.J . Deville, B.Se. (Wa les), Dip. Agr. (Maur.), A.R.I.C.L.e. FigonP. Nababsing, B.Se. (Exeter). Ph.D. (Lond.) , A.R.Le.D . Ah Koone. CavalotL. d'EspagnacMr s. J. GauthierI. JhotyH. Maurice

    J.T. d'Espaignet, B.Se. (Glasgow), A.R.C .S.T., Dip. Agr, (Maur. )E.e. Vignes, B.Se., M.Se. (Lond.), F.R.I.C., Dip. Agr, (Maur.)M. Randabel , Dip. Agr . (Maur. )R. Kwok Tak Hing, B.S. (L.S .U. ), Dip. Agr. (MaUL),

    A.I. Che . A.S.S.e.T. (as from 15.7.72)J.F.R. Rivalland, D.E. (Chem.) (Queen sland)M. AbelL. Le GuenR . Wan Sai Chong, D ip. Agr, (Maur.)A. Berenger , Dip. Agr, (M aur.) , (until 30.6.72 )

    Miss M . Ly-Tio-Fane, B.A. (La nd)

  • Draughtsmanship & Photography

    Draughtsman-PhotographerAsst. Draughtsman-Photographer

    Public Relations

    Liaison Officer

    Administration

    Secretary-AccountantSenior Asst. Secretary-AccountantClerks

    Consultant Agronomist ...

    L.S. de Reland, Grad. N.Y.I.P.1. Forget

    L.P. Noel, Dip. Agr. (Maur.)

    P.G. du MeeJ. DesjardinsMiss M.N. Durup (until 31.8.72)Miss P. JulienMrs. M. MontocchioMiss A. North Coombes (as from 1.7.72)Mrs. M.T. RaeMrs. A. Williams

    P. Halais, Dip. Agr. (Maur.) (retired 31.12.72)

    CuratorHerbarium Assistant

    THE MAURITIUS HERBARIUM

    H.R. Julien, B.Sc. Ph.D. (Reading)J. Gueho

  • Introduction

  • INTRODUCTION

    Origins of the Institute

    Organized agricultura l research in Mauritius ca n be said to have sta rted when the StationAgrononiique was inaugurated on 30th June 1893. The results of the valuable work of the Stationare embodied in 18 Annual Reports and various Bulletins and papers.

    In the first decade of the twentieth century, it was felt that to keep pace with the times anew central organization was needed to guide the efforts of the agricultural community. Consequently,in 1913, the Colonial Office created the Department of Agriculture and the Station Agronomiqueand the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics of the Chamber of Agriculture were absorbed in the neworganization. The next development was in 1930, when in order to cater for research and experi-mentation directed particularly towards improving efficiency in the sugar cane industry, a SugarCane Research Station was organized as a Division of the Department of Agriculture. The Stationoperated until 1952 and the results of its work are to be found in 23 Annual Reports and 19 Bulletins,which include important contributions to knowledge of the sugar cane plant.

    In 1953 the work of the Sugar Cane Research Station was taken over by the MauritiusSugar Industry Research Institute, which was created following a recommendation made in 1947by the Mauritius Economic Commission that the sugar industry should organize and undertakeits own research .

    Organization and Finance

    Established by Ordinance No . 9 of 1953, the objects of the Institute were originally "topromote by means of research and investigation the technical progress and efficiency of the sugarindustry" . In recent years, however, the Institute has become increasingly involved in the country 'sbattle for self-sufficiency, in particular with crop diversification by production of secondary cropsin cane interJines and on cane land between crop cycles . A programme of res earch on this subject wasinitiated in 1968, with the aid of a grant from the Chamber of Agriculture , and was expanded withfinancial assistance from th

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