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  • Masters Dissertation

    TCP Performance Enhancing Proxy

    Based on Cross-Layer Design in

    Satellite Communication Systems

    Department of Electrical and

    Computer Engineering

    Graduate School of Ajou University

    Nathnael Gebregziabher Weldegiorgis

  • TCP Performance Enhancing Proxy

    Based on Cross-Layer Design in

    Satellite Communication Systems

    Supervisor: Professor Jae-Hyun Kim

    by

    Nathnael Gebregziabher Weldegiorgis

    A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Ajou

    University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

    for the Degree of Master of Science

    Department of Electrical and

    Computer Engineering

    Graduate School of Ajou University

    June, 2015

  • i

    Acknowledgement First of all, I would like to deliver my genuine gratitude to my

    supervisor, Professor Jae-Hyun Kim, for his advice, support, guidance

    and encouragement for the past two years. Professor Jae-Hyun Kim

    cared about me a lot, not only in academic status but also about living

    in Korea. Professor Jae-Hyun Kim also give me a chance to participate

    in a project from which I experienced significant advantages. His

    entertainments were also additional and great chances to enjoy living

    in Korea and to understand its culture. Once again I am very thankful

    to Professor Jae-Hyun Kim for all what you did for me and for your

    unlimited kindness.

    Beside my supervisor, I would like to thank you my thesis

    committee members: Professor Kyo-Beum Lee and Professor Young-

    June Choi for their encouragement and insightful comments.

    I am also very grateful to Dr. Kyu-Hwan Lee for his continuous

    assistance and support in my research area. He shared me his valuable

    experience to improve my knowledge in the research career.

    My sincere thanks extend to the devoted and hardworking of

    alums and WINNER lab members. Thank you so much for all alumni

    members that give me courage and respect. WINNER Lab members,

    they are good colleagues in helping me to improve quality of my work.

  • ii

    They are all my good friends and I spent a great time in WINNER Lab.

    Dr. Hyun-Jin Lee, Dr. Choong-Hee Lee, Dr. Shin-Hun Kang, Dr. Ji-Su

    Kim, Dr. Kyu-Hwan Lee, Sung-Hyung Lee, Dr. Kwang-Chun Go,

    Hye-Rim Cheon, So-Yi Jung, Jin-Ki Kim, Hee-In Yang, Hyun-Ki Jung,

    Ki-Hun Kim, Heung-Sik Kim, Seung-Lyong Lee, Suk-Won Kang,

    Jung-Ho Kang, Dong-Yeol Choi, Seung-Su Yoo, Won-Kyung Kim,

    Jong-Mu Kim, Moonmoon Mohanty and Min-Kyo Jung: 나는

    당신들을 모두 기억할 것입니다.

    My great thanks also goes to all Space Electronics and

    Information Engineering Lab members: Dal Geun Lee, Seung Yong

    Kang, Jin Hong An, Hae Won Jung, Kyeong Rok Kim and Young Deuk

    Kim. It was a fun time with you during sport match together with

    WINNER Lab. Thanks also to Min Lee and Chen Yiliang from

    Communication System lab.

    In addition, I would like to thank my friends and all the people

    who touched my life. Without their friendship, my life would have

    been no fun at all.

    Finally, I pass my deepest and sincere gratitude to all my lovely

    family members: mother, brothers and sisters for their encouragement,

    love and patience. Thank you my mother for giving birth to me at the

    first place and supporting me throughout my life. My brothers and

  • iii

    sisters, thank you so much for your unlimited advice and support and

    cared about me a lot. I am proud of you. My great thanks goes also to

    my aunts, my uncles and all my relatives. I will never forget your

    advice and contribution. Thank you all!

  • iv

    Abstract Satellite communication system is an ideal medium to provide

    Internet connectivity to wide area coverage. Most of the Internet

    applications and services run over TCP/IP protocol to deliver data to

    destinations. New satellite system architectures like Digital video

    broadcasting-return channel via satellite (DVB-RCS) are being

    designed to be fully IP based. However, geosynchronous orbit (GEO)

    satellite channels are characterized by long round-trip time (RTT),

    large bandwidth delay product (BDP) and high bit error rates (BER)

    that cause to degrade standard TCP performance in satellite links.

    In this thesis, we propose a cross-layer design scheme in TCP

    splitting connections on DVB-RCS networks. A cross-layer

    architecture allows for interaction between TCP and the resource

    allocation (RA) scheme in the link layer. TCP congestion window

    (CWND) is tuned using information on the RA in layer 2. To evaluate

    the performance, we implement the tuned CWND on TCP Linux

    kernel over TCP-splitting based performance enhancing proxy (PEP)

    test-bed. The results show that TCP CWND can be adjusted by RA

    information in the proposed cross-layer design. In all the results,

    especially in higher link error rate, the performance of the customized

    TCP is very impressive in both single and multiple sessions.

  • v

    Contents List of Figures…..………………………………………………... vii

    List of Tables………………………………………………………. ix List of Abbreviations……………………………………………… x

    Chapter 1. Introduction ............................................................................................. 1

    1.1 Background and Motivation ..................................................... 1 1.2 Contributions ........................................................................ 5 1.3 Overview ............................................................................. 6

    Chapter 2. Related Works ......................................................................................... 7

    2.1 Overview of Satellite Networks ................................................ 7 2.2 TCP Fundamentals ................................................................. 9 2.3 TCP Limitations in Satellite Communications ........................... 13 2.4 New TCP Modifications ........................................................ 15 2.5 Performance Enhancing Proxy(PEP) ....................................... 18

    2.5.1 Overview .................................................................. 18

    2.5.2 TCP-Splitting Based PEP Scheme ................................. 19

    2.5.3 Multi-Session in TCP-Splitting Based PEP ..................... 20

    2.6 Cross-Layer Approach .......................................................... 22

    Chapter 3. TCP-Splitting Based on Cross-Layer Design ........................................ 25

    3.1 System Architecture .......................................................................... 25

    3.2 TCP Initiation Procedure .................................................................. 26

    3.3 TCP Demand Rate Request .............................................................. 28

    3.4 Resource Allocation and Contention Window Tuning ...................... 30

    Chapter 4. Implementation ..................................................................................... 32

    4.1 TCP Linux Kernel ............................................................................. 32

    4.2 Tuned CWND Implementation ......................................................... 33

    4.3 Test-bed Description ......................................................................... 34

    4.3.1 Test-bed Architecture ........................................................... 36

    4.3.2 PEP Software ....................................................................... 38

  • vi

    4.3.3 Dummynet ........................................................................... 39

    Chapter 5. Performance Evaluation .............................................. 42

    5.1 Single Session Performance ............................................................. 43

    5.1.1 CWND Performance ............................................................ 44

    5.1.2 Throughput Performance ..................................................... 45

    5.2 Multi-Session Performance .............................................................. 50

    5.2.1 CWND Performance ............................................................ 50

    5.2.2 Throughput Performance ..................................................... 50

    Chapter 6. Conclusion .................................................................... 55

    Reference …………………………………………………………. 57

  • vii

    List of Figures Figure 1. Broadband satellite system ..................................... 8

    Figure 2. Connection setup and termination ........................ 10

    Figure 3. TCP slow start mechanism .................................... 11

    Figure 4. Generation of duplicate ACKs ............................. 12

    Figure 5. TCP operation ....................................................... 13

    Figure 6. Proxy architect

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