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2004 Peter Ratner All rights reserved. Copyright under Berne Copyright Convention, Universal Copyright Convention, and Pan-American Copyright Convention. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission of the publisher. 05 04 03 02 01 00 5 4 3 2 1

Published by Allworth Press An imprint of Allworth Communications 10 East 23rd Street, New York, NY 10010 Cover design by Derek Bacchus Interior design by Sharp Des!gns, Inc., Lansing, MI Page composition/typography by Peter Ratner ISBN: 1-58115-345-7 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Ratner, Peter. Mastering 3D animation / text and illustrations by Peter Ratner.2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 1-58115-345-7 (pbk.) 1. Computer animation. 2. Three-dimensional display systems. I. Title. TR897.7.R39 2004 006.6'96-dc22 2004004429

Printed in Canada

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Dedicated to Sharon, Ori, and the ECK

v

ContentsFOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI CHAPTER 5: SPECIAL EFFECTS

Explosions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96ABOUT THE CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII

Various Particle Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Using Voxels to Simulate Explosions . . . . . . . . . . 102 Polygon or NURBS Object Fragmentation . . . . . . . 103 Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Atmospherics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Electrical Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 A Body of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120PART II

PART

I

3D MODELING AND ANIMATION FUNDAMENTALS

CHAPTER 1: THE FUNDAMENTALS OF 3D MODELING

Polygon vs. Splines and NURBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Subdivision Surface Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Basic Subdivision Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Intermediate Subdivision Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Some Final Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29CHAPTER 2: BASIC 3D MODELING

ADVANCED 3D MODELING

CHAPTER 6: MODELING THE HUMAN FIGURE

Modeling a Simple Cartoon Character . . . . . . . . . . 32 Modeling a More Complex Character . . . . . . . . . . . 38CHAPTER 3: ANIMATING WITH DEFORMATION TOOLS

Modeling the Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Modeling the Torso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Modeling the Arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Modeling the Legs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146CHAPTER 7: COMPLETING THE FIGURE

Preparing the Model for a Skeletal Structure . . . . . . 52 Animating Without a Skeleton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Creating a Skeleton for a Four-legged Character . . . 67CHAPTER 4: BASIC 3D ANIMATION

Modeling the Mouth Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Modeling the Eye Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Modeling the Eyelashes and Eyebrows . . . . . . . . . 159 Texturing the Human . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Creating Hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165CHAPTER 8: MODELING A BACKGROUND

Setting up the Camera(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Placing the Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Posing the Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Pose-to-Pose Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Animating in Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Using a Graph Editor to Change an Animation . . . 81 Editing the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Modeling Walls, a Ceiling, and the Floor. . . . . . . 175 Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 A TV Stand or Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178vii

M a s t e r i n g

3 D

A n i m a t i o n

A Television. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 A Sofa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 A Love Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 A Coffee Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 A Bookshelf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 A Hardback Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 A Lamp Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 A Hanging Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 TV Trays and Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Electrical Cord and Wall Socket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Paintings, Photos, and Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197PART III

CHAPTER 12: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMATION: THE ELEMENTS OF ACTION

The Importance of Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Rendering in Movie or Image Format . . . . . . . . . . 263 Post Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 The Twelve Principles of Animation. . . . . . . . . . . 263 Squash and Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Anticipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Staging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Straight-Ahead vs. Pose-to-Pose Action. . . . . . . . . 278 Rotoscoping in 3D Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287CHAPTER 13: MORE PRINCIPLES OF ANIMATION: MOVEMENTS OF THE FIGURE

Follow-Through and Overlapping Action . . . . . . . 290 Slow In and Slow Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Arcs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Secondary Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Exaggeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Solid Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Appeal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308CHAPTER 14: COMPOSITION AND CINEMATOGRAPHY

PREPARING FOR 3D ANIMATION

CHAPTER 9: LIGHTING

Light Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Lighting Arrangements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Lighting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Mood Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218CHAPTER 10: SURFACING TECHNIQUES

Texture Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Surface Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Mapping Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Bump Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Specular Maps and Diffuse Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Transparency Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Displacement Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236GLOSSARY .

Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Camera Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

PART

IV

SCHEDULES

CHARACTER ANIMATION FUNDAMENTALS

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY

INTERNATIONAL GALLERY OF IMAGES CHAPTER 11: EXPRESSING EMOTION WITH FACIAL ANIMATION INDEX

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

The Basic Shapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Blending Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Direction of the Muscular Pull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

viii

Foreword

T

echnology affects art. Three great changes have taken place in the history of Western art, and all of them are the result of scien-

directly on the canvas. Sometimes they mixed the colors on the painting itself, and other times they placed the colors next to each other so that the process of optical mixing would blend them in the viewers eye. This art movement owes its birth to a number of technological innovations. Photography helped the artists with composition and helped them see how a moment or a movement can be caught in time. Newly available tubes of paint allowed them to easily work outside. Artists used to grind and mix their own pigments with oil. These mixtures were then stored in pig bladder pouches. Metal tubes preserved the pigments longer and gave artists the opportunity to take extensive painting trips outdoors. During the Industrial Revolution, scientific research into the physics of color and optics taught the Impressionists how to achieve a more exact representation of the effects of light in nature. It was a time of discovery. The steam engine gave the masses greater mobility. Ordinary peoples lives changed with inventions such as the power loom, camera, streetlights, cast iron, and steel. Technological progress created a climate in which individuals felt they could do anything. The third major turning point in art is taking pl