marzano’s essential 9 instructional strategies engaged time = student gains

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Research  Classroom Instruction That Works by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, Jane Pollock  Identified nine instructional strategies that are most likely to improve student achievement across all content areas and across all grade levels


Marzanos Essential 9 Instructional Strategies Engaged Time = Student Gains Objectives examine research-based instructional strategies identify methods for teaching these strategies consider which strategies you will incorporate in your classroom practice Research Classroom Instruction That Works by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, Jane Pollock Identified nine instructional strategies that are most likely to improve student achievement across all content areas and across all grade levels The Essential Nine Average Percentile Rank Gains on Student Achievement Tests Identifying Similarities & Differences45 Nonlinguistic Representations34 Summarizing & Notetaking 29 Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback28 Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition27 Generating & Testing Hypotheses27 Homework & Practice23 Cues, Questions, & Advance Organizers23 Cooperative Learning22 Similarities and Differences Research The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand and solve complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way. Identifying Similarities and Differences Variety of Ways -Comparing similarities and differences -Classifying grouping things that are alike -Metaphors comparing two unlike things -Analogies identifying relationships between pairs of concepts concepts Identifying Similarities and Differences Recommendations: Give students a model for the process. Use familiar content to teach steps. Give students graphic organizers. Guide students as needed. Summarizing and Note Taking Research - encourages powerful learning - leads to deeper understanding - facilitates long-term recall Verbatim note taking is the least effective way to take notes. Summarizing Recommendations Verbal summaries Written summaries Graphic organizers Have students paraphrase key points Note Taking Research Note taking and summarizing are closely related. Both require students to identify what is most important about the knowledge they are learning and then state that knowledge in their own words. Note Taking Recommendations 1. Explicitly teach students a variety of note-taking formats 2. Provide teacher-prepared notes 3. Provide an organizer for taking notes 4. Remind students to review their notes 5. Provide an activity for students to use their notes Think, Pair, Share turn to your neighbor and discuss turn to your neighbor and discuss 1. How do you reinforce students effort in your classroom? 2. What is the purpose for reinforcing effort in the classroom? 3. What makes reinforcing effort effective or ineffective? Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes: Effort Other people Ability Luck Three of these four beliefs ultimately inhibit achievement (Covington 1983,1985) Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition Research: Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance. Symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards. (charts) Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition Recommendations: Recognize effort & progress throughout unit Specific praise (contingent and non-contingent) Intermittent celebrations Students chart effort and achievement Students record progress toward goals Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Research Both homework and practice give students opportunities to deepen their understanding and proficiency with content they are learning. Homework & Practice Recommendations: -Purpose Not just busy work Reinforce instruction -Assignment sheets Clarify what they are doing and why Track progress -Feedback Be specific Non Linguistic Representations Research -Engaging students in the creation of nonlinguistic representation actually stimulates and increases activity in the brain Non Linguistic Representations Recommendations: Generating mental images Drawing pictures or pictographs Constructing graphic organizers Acting out content Making physical models Making revisions to physical models, mental images, pictures, graphic organizers Use Graphic Organizers to: Make thinking visible Activate current knowledge Present information Take notes Summarize information Assess student learning Non Linguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Research Organizing students into cooperative groups yields a positive effect on overall learning if approach is systematic and consistent. reading assignments (with or without the book on CD) research - online and/or reference materials lab/activity - hands on or worksheet journal/reflection entry into a computer or a notebook assessment/survey - online or onto paper peer editing games/simulations puzzles - software or paper Cooperative Learning discussion/reflection questions skill practice in pairs individual or group self-corrected tests create charts, graphs or diagrams flashcards - (create or use existing) direct instruction Prepare / edit presentations or skits PPT, Word, photostory teacher centered work groups Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback Research: Students learn more efficiently when they know the goals and objectives of a specific lesson or learning activity. Setting Objectives Begin with a clear learning target Align objectives with standards Share expectations with students Know Know Understand Understand Be able to do Be able to do Providing Feedback Providing Feedback Recommendations: Use various methods of assessment Feedback should be corrective in nature Give timely feedback. Feedback should be specific to criterion. Use self-assessment tools to gauge progress. Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback Generating & Testing Hypotheses Research: Generating and testing hypotheses involves the application of knowledge, which enhances learning. Generating & Testing Hypotheses Examples of Strategies Problem Solving Investigation Invention Experimental Inquiry Decision Making Generating & Testing Hypotheses Recommendations: Use familiar content to teach the strategy Give students a model for the strategy Use graphic organizers Provide guided practice Have students explain their hypotheses and conclusions Questions, Cues & Advance Organizers Research: Questions Help students analyze what they already know Cues Provide explicit reminders about what a student is about to experience Advance Organizers Help students retrieve what they know about a topic and focus on the new information Recommendations: Introduce new vocabulary Provide links to prior knowledge or experiences Begin with student predictions Tell students the topic of an article they are about to read Provide ways for students to organize new content Questions, Cues & Advance Organizers Final Tip End with a processing activity that provides students with the opportunity to use the new content from the lesson. Shaping Up Review One thing that you loved learning about today One all encompassing statement that summarizes todays session. Three most important facts from todays session. Four things that are important concepts from todays session one in each corner.