marxist criticism presentation
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DESCRIPTIONHere is my second uploaded presentation, Marxist Approach in literary criticism. There are instructions herein. Should you need the activities, please contact me via my email address: firstname.lastname@example.org or my pm me via my FB account. I am always willing to lecture about this topic. Contact me via my cellular number 0935-918-3854. Thanks!
- 1. Who started it?He was a 19th centuryGerman philosopher thatbecame a part of the YoungHegelians, and later, theCommunist League. Marx isrevered as one of the mostinfluential socialist thinkersof the 19th century.Some of his most notableworks are: The German Ideology (1846) The Communist Manifesto(1848) Das Kapital (1867)
2. But we cant have Marx without... Engels was pretty much Marxs best friend. He shared Marxs socialist beliefs and provided support financially as well as intellectually while Marx developed his theories. Some of his major works were: The Condition of the WorkingClass in England (1844) Co-authored The Communist Manifesto (1848) 3. GEORG LUKACS:Reflectionism orVulgarMarxism-Believed that the text will reflect thesocietythathas producedit.-Stressed that historical approach isdifferent to reflectionism-Reflectionists attribute the separationthat they discover to the ills ofcapitalism. 4. Argued that literature and art affect thesociety Believed that the working class ismanipulated to accept the ideology of the dominant one. Jameson and Eagleton : Theories areintertwined and not just one sided. 5. Bourgeoisie : the name given byMarx to the owners of the means ofproductions in a society. Ideology: A belief system Proletariat : The name given byMarx to the workers in the society. Capitalism is an economic system that is basedon private ownership of the means ofproduction and the creation of goods or servicesfor profit. 6. Engels and Marx founded the social and economic system of Marxism in the 19th century. Essentially, it is the opposite of capitalism. **Proletariat Capitalist $ $$ $$$$$Capitalism is based on private ownership andmotivation by profit. Marx criticizes capitalism for itstendency to abuse the working man, or theproletariat, by paying a wage that barelyguarantees the workers survival. 7. Instead, Marxism utilizes socialisms concept of public ownership. Angry Mob Capitalist!Marxism theorizes that in order to remove theproletariat from its poor economic situation, asocialist revolution must occur to remove theunconcerned ruling class from government. 8. $$$$ $$$$Following the revolution, a new, socialistgovernment is created that subsequentlybecomes communist in nature. 9. Marxist Criticism is the belief that literaturereflects this class struggle and materialism. It looks at how literature functions in relation toother aspects of the superstructure, particularlyother articulations of ideology. Like feminist critics, it investigates how literaturecan work as a force for social change, or as areaffirmation of existing conditions. Like New Historicism, it examines how historyinfluences literature; the difference is thatMarxism focuses on the lower classes. 10. 1) What is the economic status of the characters?2) What happens to them as a result of this status?3) How do they fare against economic and politicalodds?4) What other conditions stemming from their classdoes the writer emphasize?5) To what extent does the work fail by overlooking theeconomic, social, and political implications of itsmaterial?6) In what other ways does economic determinismaffect the work?7) How should the readers consider this story intodays developed or underdeveloped world? 11. It promotes the idea that literatureshould be a tool in the revolutionarystruggle. It attempts to clarify the relationship ofliterary work to social reality. It is political in nature. It aims to arrive at an interpretation ofliterary text in order to define the politicaldimensions of literary work. 12. It believes that the literary work hasALWAYS a relationship to the society. It judges literature by how it representsthe main struggles for power going onthat time, how it may influence thosestruggles. It highlights and lauds solution from thecritic [if ever s/he could come up withone]. 13. Remember : economic system is the movingforce behind human history.Thus, to explain any social context orgenre, understand the historicalcircumstances.E.g.: In the story, the society depicted anunequal distribution of goods. 14. Marx averred that reality is material notspiritual. We are not spiritual beings butsocially constructed ones. As critics, we are tasked to examine therelationship among socioeconomicgroups in order to achieve insight intoourselves and our society. 15. Conflict here principallymeans the friction between theproletariat and the bourgeoisie. 16. According to Marx, thedominant class or higher class do control art, literature, and ideologies. Marxist critics should identifythe ideology of the work and pointout its worth and deficiencies. 17. 1. Approach the text with an eyefor how the characters interact.Marxist thought relies onrelationships betweenindividuals, and even thoseaspects of relationships that aresocial can be part of a Marxistcritique. 18. 2.Evaluate the vocational roles of allcharacters. The Marxist critiqueincludes a focus on a "class system"where the vocations of charactersprovide the most direct reference totheir place within this system. Lookat the level of luxury that eachindividual has and how much theyhavetowork. 19. 3. Look at how characters use their free time. Part of the Marxist critique is based on the argument that individuals can use free time productively. Examining the free choices of individuals is actually a large part of Marxist literary criticism. 20. 4. Assess the role of government in thepiece of literature. Is it draconian?Laissez-faire? Marxist thought relies ongovernment as a model for liberty andalso for communalism: look at the toolsthat government uses. Does thegovernment, insolicitingcitizenship, appeal to the capitalisttendencies of individuals or to their innatelove of community? 21. 5. Use Marxist writers as a guide. Pickideas outlined by Marxist writers of pasteras and apply them to your particularstudy. As a general guideline, "rules" shouldntbe over emphasized in literary criticism.It doesnt have to be overlytechnical, just go from a general"Marxist" viewpoint and tell somethingabout the story. 22. 1.1. Clarify your understanding of thework.1.2. Examine the introduction/setting/over-all status of the society as regardseconomic, social, and cultural aspects.At the beginning, try to seek andunderstand the apartheid or the inequalitypresent in the society. What class does thecharacter belong to? 23. 2.1. The Introduction-Tell the ideology and how it is related to Marxist principles 2.2. The Body - It will depend on the style of the critic - Reveal, in detailed points, the proofs of having inequality, oppression, and control ofwealth. 2.3. The Conclusion - Endorse that lower class be given chance toaccess equal wealth and power. - It may be a suggestion of social reform ASAP. - You may tell the impact of Marxist principles into your life as a critic. 24. Bawat palo ng martilyo sa bakal mong pinapanday alipatong nagtilamsik, alitaptap sa kadimlan; mga apoy ng pawis mong sa Bakal ay kumikinangtandang ikaw ang may gawa nitong buong Santinakpan.Nang tipakin mo ang bato ay natayo ang katedralnang pukpukin mo ang tanso ay umugong ang batingaw, nang lutuin mo ang pilak ang salapi a lumitaw, si Puhunan ay gawa mo, kaya ngayony nagyayabang. 25. kung may gusaling naangat, tandang ikaw ang pumasan mula sa duyan ng bata ay kamao mo ang gumalawhanggang hukay ay gawa mo ang krus na nakalagay.Kaya ikaw ay marapat dakilain at itanghalpagkat ikaw ang yumari nitong buong Kabihasnan..... Bawat patak ng pawis moy yumayari ka ng dangal, dinadala mo ang lahi sa luklukan ng tagumpay.Mabuhay ka ng buhay na walang wakas, walang hanggan, at hihinto ang pag-ikot nitong mundo pag namatay. 26. Jose Corazon De Jesus poem entitled Manggagawa presentsthe reader an exaltation of the lower class vividly represented by themain subject, the worker (Manggagawa). Moreover, it shows a greatdisparity of the rich (the bourgeoisie) and the workers (theproletariat). The poem generally gives clear scenario of the contrastof the former and the latter, and towards the end, it provides a loudclamor for equality between these classes. The apartheid is evidenced in many aspects through theappropriate use of words or descriptions in the poem. Through theproducts that the latter made, the higher class is greatly benefitted.The cathedral during that time was a vital place for the elite. Thesilver/bronze (money) is vividly attributed to the rich, the capital(puhunan) to the businessmen. Flaunting members of the rich classbecame clear in the poem by the use of the word ostentatious(nagmamayabang). 27. On the third stanza, greater hardships of the lower class werepointed out through the use of more emphatic descriptions. Thegigantic buildings are attributed to the affluent or elite only, sincethese are their typical workplace. Having erected suchbuildings, the members of the lower class gained a lucid positionof being below the wealthy. The last two lines of the third stanza, on the otherhand, underscored the greatest evidences of oppressed lowerclass. The contrasting from birth to death [of working]prepositional phrases point to the perennial activities of the lowerclass that are primarily typical in the culture. That means that aparticular member of the lower class has a very low percentage ofelevating his status in the society. As regards the government, thepoem reflects that it has a less control on the elitism, which firmlyshows the strength and influence of the elite in the society.Therefore, a clear view of capitalism is embedded and reflected in 28. After presenting the evidences of having a capitalisticattitude in the society, the persona boisterously clamor that thelower class be given recognition and they be given due creditand due respect for what they do for the betterment of economyand the whole populace in general. Pointing the value of eachoozing sweat, the persona acknowledges his great debt ofgratitude to the proletariat or the workers in contr