maritime piracy in the 21st century

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Guest lecture for officers and crew of Canadian frigate.

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  • 1. MARITIME PIRACY IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010 MATTHEW GILLIS MA CANDIDATE, POLITICAL SCIENCE, DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH ASSISTANT, CENTRE FOR FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES MATTGILLIS@DAL.CA
  • 2. OBJECTIVES 1. TO DEFINE CONTEMPORARY MARITIME PIRACY AND BRIEFLY EXAMINE ITS ORIGINS. 2. TO PROVIDE A BROAD ANALYSIS OF PIRACY IN AND AROUND SOMALIA, AS WELL OF COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS IN THE AREA. 3. TO CONSIDER THE LESSONS LEARNED FROM ANOTHER PIRACY-PRONE REGION AND APPLY THEM TO SOMALIA.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 3. OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CONTEMPORARY MARITIME PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS IN THE GULF OF ADEN 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA LESSONS LEARNED 5. CONCLUSIONSMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 4. 1. INTRODUCTION MARITIME PIRACY IS NOT A NEW PROBLEM. EARLIEST ACTS OF PIRACY FOUND IN ANTIQUITY. ENCLAVES OF PRIVATE SEA-FARING RAIDERS. COMMON IN THE ADRIATIC SEA, AEGEAN SEA, AND CHINA SEAS. EARLY ACTS OF PIRACY CONSTITUTED SHORE PARTIES RAIDING COASTAL VILLAGES.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 5. 1. INTRODUCTION Arab pirates sack Byzantine city of Thessalonica , 904 AD.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 6. 1. INTRODUCTION PIRACYS GOLDEN AGE BETWEEN 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES. REGULAR MERCHANT TRAFFIC IN CARIBBEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN COINCIDES WITH RISE OF PIRACY. PIRATES IN THE WEST INDIES AND BARBARY COAST RAID MERCHANT TRAFFIC. LARGE-SCALE PIRACY EFFECTIVELY ENDS WITH FRENCH CONQUEST OF ALGERIA IN 1830.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 7. 1. INTRODUCTION French ship-of-the-line battling Barbary corsairs.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 8. 1. INTRODUCTION MODERN PIRACY AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 101, 1982 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (UNCLOS): Piracy consists of any of the following acts: (a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft; (ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; (c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 9. 1. INTRODUCTION Piracy consists of any of the following acts: (a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, Violent crimes or robbery; excludes petty or any act of depredation, committed theft, smuggling, drug trafficking, etc. for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a Acts committed for private ends. private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft; Piracy takes place on the (ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or high seas only...? property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; (c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 10. 1. INTRODUCTION A BETTER DEFINITION, FROM THE ICCS INTERNATIONAL MARITIME BUREAU: An act of boarding or attempting to board any ship with the apparent intent to commit theft or any other crime and with the apparent intent or capability to use force in the furtherance of that act.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 11. 1. INTRODUCTION CONTEMPORARY PIRACY BY THE NUMBERS: Actual and Attempted Attacks 500 450 400 350 World Aggregate 300 250 Indonesia 200 150 Somalia and Gulf of Aden 100 50 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 SOURCE: IMBMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 12. 1. INTRODUCTION CONTEMPORARY PIRACY BY THE NUMBERS: Actual and Attempted Attacks in 2009 45 8 29 Somalia and Gulf of Aden Rest of Africa Americas 23 Far East 218 Indian Subcontinent 32 Rest of World SE Asia 46 SOURCE: IMBMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 13. 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN SOURCE: CIA WORLD FACTBOOKMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
  • 14.

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