March 24, 2013 ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON March 24, 2013 ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON THE LORD’S SUPPER MINISTRY INVOCATION “Almighty God: Our existence is predicated on Your Love for us and for that we are humbled as well as blessed

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>March 24, 2013 </p><p>ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON </p><p>THE LORDS SUPPER MINISTRY INVOCATION </p><p>Almighty God: Our existence is predicated on Your Love for us and for that </p><p>we are humbled as well as blessed. There is No One greater than You. In Jesus </p><p>Name, Amen. </p><p>WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW AND UNDERSTAND </p><p>Lukes account of Jesus eating with His disciples is one of the most </p><p>dramatic of the table scenes. Jesus announced His imminent death, which he </p><p>linked with the fulfillment of Gods redemptive purposes. He predicted His </p><p>betrayal at the hands of one whose hand is with [Jesus] on the table. </p><p>THE APPLIED FULL GOSPEL DISTINCTIVE </p><p>We believe in the Divine Personhood of the Holy Spirit and His </p><p>present-day ministry to Believers, including the sovereign distribution of </p><p>spiritual gifts, which empowers Believers for service in the contemporary </p><p>church. </p><p>TEXT: </p><p>Background Scripture Luke 22:14-30 </p><p>Key Verse Luke 22:26 </p><p>Lesson Scripture Luke 22:14-30 (NKJV) </p><p>The Passover is Celebrated 14 When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. </p><p>15 Then He said to them, With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover </p><p>with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is </p><p>fulfilled in the kingdom of God. 17 Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this and divide it </p><p>among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until </p><p>the kingdom of God comes. </p><p>The Lords Supper is Instituted 19 And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, </p><p>This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me. 20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new </p><p>covenant in My blood, which is shed for you. </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>Christ Predicts His Betrayer 21 But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table. 22 And truly the </p><p>Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is </p><p>betrayed! 23 Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who </p><p>would do this thing. </p><p>The Disciples Argue Over Who is the Greatest 24 Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be </p><p>considered the greatest. 25 And He said to them, The kings of the Gentiles </p><p>exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are </p><p>called benefactors. 26 But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest </p><p>among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves. 27 </p><p>For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits </p><p>at the table? Yet I am among you as the One who serves. 28 But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials. 29 And I </p><p>bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me, 30 that </p><p>you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging </p><p>the twelve tribes of Israel. </p><p>COMMENTARY </p><p>The account of the Lords Supper is the seventh meal scene found in Luke. </p><p>The Lukan version of the Lords Supper differs from the parallel accounts in </p><p>Mark and Matthew in two major ways. First, he placed Jesus statement about his </p><p>betrayal after rather than before the supper. He may have done this for literary </p><p>reasons in order to give a more orderly account of the events surrounding Jesus </p><p>passion. Second, he had a tradition of an earlier cup (22:1518) that gives the </p><p>unusual order of cup-bread-cup. </p><p>It seems reasonably certain that the Lords Supper was associated with a </p><p>Passover meal for the following reasons: the Passover had to be eaten within the </p><p>walled city of Jerusalem, and the Lords Supper was also eaten within the walled </p><p>city; the Passover evening had to be spent in greater Jerusalem, which </p><p>included the Mount of Olives, but not Bethany, and Jesus and the disciples spent </p><p>that evening in the garden of Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives; Jesus and the </p><p>disciples reclined at the Lords Supper and this was required at the Passover, </p><p>whereas at most meals one sat; the Lords Supper, like the Passover, was eaten in </p><p>the evening, whereas most meals were eaten in the late afternoon; the Lords </p><p>Supper ended with hymn. </p><p>The Passover was a carefully ordered ritual in which each element of the meal </p><p>reminded the participants of their redemption from Egypt. At the end of the </p><p>meal someone (usually the youngest son) was designated to ask, Why is this </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>night different from other nights? The host of the meal, in this instance Jesus, </p><p>would recount the exodus story. The story tells of Gods remembering his </p><p>covenant; deliverance from slavery in Egypt; the blood of the Passover lamb; </p><p>Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed; the interpretation of the </p><p>elements of the Passover meal; and a call for the continual celebration of the </p><p>Passover. </p><p>22:14 When the hour came. In Jesus setting this referred to the hour to </p><p>celebrate the Passover, but for Lukes readers this could mean the hour in </p><p>which Jesus would bring his mission to completion. </p><p>Jesus and his apostles reclined at the table. The last supper, as all </p><p>celebrations of the Lords Supper, was meant for those who professed to be </p><p>Jesus followers Jesus and his apostles reclined is literally he reclined, and his </p><p>disciples with him. The wording emphasizes Jesus initiative. The Passover was </p><p>eaten in a reclining position, i.e., lying on the side facing a short table with </p><p>cushions under the arm. </p><p>22:15 I have eagerly desired. It can be understood in several ways: (1) as an </p><p>unfulfilled wish, i.e., I have desired but unfortunately will not be able to eat this </p><p>Passover. In Luke, Jesus clearly eats the Passover (Luke 22:11, 15); (2) I have looked </p><p>forward to sharing the joy of eating the Passover with you, to teach you of the new </p><p>covenant in my blood and to bring my work to a conclusion. (3) I have desired to </p><p>participate in this (or possibly a future) Passover with you but will not. </p><p>This Passover. This can mean the Passover lamb or the Passover meal. </p><p>Before I suffer. For Luke the whole scene of the Lords Supper centered </p><p>around Jesus suffering. </p><p>22:16 I will not eat it again. This is the strongest negation possible in Greek </p><p>and refers not to abstinence from the present Passover but to the fact that His </p><p>forthcoming death would prohibit Him from sharing future Passovers with the </p><p>disciples. </p><p>Until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God. This refers to the time of </p><p>the messianic banquet at the end of history, i.e., when the kingdom is </p><p>consummated. What the it refers to is unclear. It cannot be the kingdom of </p><p>God because the it is distinguished from the kingdom. Probably it is best </p><p>understood as referring to the Passover as a type of the messianic banquet. Jesus </p><p>would not share again in such a banquet meal with the disciples until Gods </p><p>kingdom has been consummated. </p><p>22:17 After taking a cup. The cup is one of the earlier cups associated with </p><p>the Passover meal. </p><p>He gave thanks. Take this and divide it among you. A single cup probably </p><p>was shared by the disciples. Whether Jesus himself partook of this cup is unclear. </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>22:18 For I tell you. I will not drink again until the kingdom of God </p><p>comes. No distinction should be made between the drinking mentioned here and </p><p>the eating mentioned in 22:16. They simply are descriptive of eating a meal and </p><p>in particular the messianic banquet. </p><p>22:19 And he took bread. Bread refers to a loaf of bread whether </p><p>leavened or unleavened. Gave thanks. Luke used thanks (eucharistsas), from </p><p>which we get Eucharist, rather than thanks (eulogsas) or bless. There is little </p><p>difference in meaning between these two Greek terms. </p><p>This is my body. As Jesus earlier interpreted the unleavened bread in the </p><p>Passover ritual, so in the Lords Supper He also interpreted the bread. This </p><p>refers to the bread just mentioned. The bread represents the body of Jesus in </p><p>the sense that it represents Jesus. The bread thus represents the Word [which] </p><p>became flesh, not the flesh alone but the person who tabernacled in flesh. </p><p>Given. Given is literally being given. It is unclear whether the Giver is </p><p>understood as Jesus or God. Probably the latter is meant, but there would be </p><p>little difference in Lukes understanding, for Jesus is Gods Son. </p><p>This is. This is is best understood metaphorically in </p><p>symbolizes/represents rather than this has now become/been transformed </p><p>into. </p><p>For you. Given for you explains how the bread, i.e., the self-giving of Jesus, </p><p>relates to the believer. </p><p>Do this in remembrance of me. This is not to be interpreted Do this in order </p><p>that God might remember me but rather Do this, i.e., share the bread and the cup, in </p><p>your celebration of the Lords Supper remembering me, my work, and my presence </p><p>among you. </p><p>22:20 After the supper. The Lords Supper comes at the end of the Passover </p><p>and builds on its imagery. </p><p>This cup is. The fact that drinking blood was forbidden by the law (Lev 3:17; </p><p>7:2627; 17:14) makes it most difficult to think the disciples and early Jewish </p><p>Christians thought that in drinking the cup they were actually drinking real </p><p>blood. </p><p>The new covenant in my blood. The cup is understood as representing </p><p>sacrificial blood that inaugurates and seals a new covenant. </p><p>Which is poured out for you. </p><p>Jesus death lies within Gods providential rule and plan. Jesus both knew of </p><p>his coming death and saw it as involving a divine necessity. Jesus would die </p><p>because God had given him over to death. Thus, His death was not a surprise or </p><p>tragedy but the fulfillment of Gods purpose and plan. Luke by repeating this </p><p>tradition may also have been seeking to assure his readers that their practice of </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>celebrating the Lords Supper stemmed from Jesus Himself. Thus, they could </p><p>know the certainty of this practice that they had been taught (1:4). </p><p>Within the present account, we also have a strong eschatological emphasis </p><p>concerning the future consummation of Gods kingdom. Jesus will not return </p><p>and share the messianic banquet until the final consummation when the events </p><p>of 21:2536 take place. Luke most clearly portrayed the arrival of Gods kingdom </p><p>in Jesus ministry. Although Satan already had fallen from heaven (10:18), the </p><p>promised Spirit was present among them and a new covenant had been </p><p>established, Luke reminded his readers that their celebration of the Lords </p><p>Supper revealed that the final consummation was still in the future. As among </p><p>their Jewish contemporaries, the Passover awakened hopes and longings for the </p><p>coming of the messianic banquet, so even more should the Lords Supper cause </p><p>readers to look not only backward to their Lords death but forward to his </p><p>return. </p><p>Luke understood Jesus death as being both sacrificial and vicarious. Jesus </p><p>death is understood as sacrificial blood poured out to establish a new covenant </p><p>(22:20). His death is vicarious because it is for you (22:1920). Later in Acts </p><p>20:28 he again revealed that he was in agreement with the traditions teaching of </p><p>the vicarious and sacrificial nature of Jesus death. </p><p>22:21 But. Literally But behold. The foretelling of the Judass betrayal is closely </p><p>tied to the Lords Supper. </p><p>The hand of him. This expression is used to represent the whole (Judas). </p><p>Who is going to betray me. Literally who is in the process of betraying me. The </p><p>betrayal had already begun (22:36). </p><p>With mine on the table. This is better translated with me at the table. Luke </p><p>revealed that participation in the Lords Supper does not guarantee membership </p><p>in Gods kingdom. </p><p>22:22 The Son of Man. Will go. Literally proceeds. The certainty of this future </p><p>event is so great it can be spoken of in the present tense. What Jesus had begun </p><p>was about to be accomplished. </p><p>As it has been decreed. What was about to happen would occur because God </p><p>had ordained it. The use of decreed instead of written reveals Lukes interest </p><p>in emphasizing that Jesus death fulfills the divine plan and purpose. </p><p>But woe to that man who betrays him. Any attempt to romanticize Judass </p><p>role in fulfilling the divine plan is shipwrecked on this statement. The </p><p>Evangelists understood Judas as damning himself by his action. The verse is a </p><p>good example of how divine sovereignty and human responsibility exist </p><p>alongside each other. </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>22:23 They began to question among themselves. The horror of betrayal by a </p><p>friend was far greater in biblical times than today. Compare in I Corinthians </p><p>11:2930 how Christians sitting at table with the risen Lord and betraying him </p><p>is also seen as resulting in judgment and even death. </p><p>Which of them it might be who would do this. Judas was still present with </p><p>the disciples. </p><p>After the Lords Supper, Luke pointed out Jesus knowledge of the future and </p><p>his awareness of what was about to take place. He was even aware that one of </p><p>the Twelve was in the process of betraying him. As a prophet and as the Son of </p><p>God, he was not caught unawares as to what was about to happen. Luke </p><p>expected his readers to understand the Christological implications of this. He </p><p>also expected they would see Gods sovereign rule and control in this as well. </p><p>Even the betrayal is in accord with the divine plan. The desire of the chief priests, </p><p>teachers of the law, the decision of Judas, and even the role of Satan were seen by </p><p>Luke as serving the divine purpose. God is in control. Luke did not explain how </p><p>individual responsibility, in the case of Judas and the Jewish leadership, and the </p><p>divine foreknowledge and ordination of what was to take place fit together. </p><p>What is clear is that Luke wanted his readers to know that Jesus death was not a </p><p>tragedy but determined and foreknown and that Jesus and his Father were </p><p>in complete control throughout. It was God who decreed what took place </p><p>(22:22). </p><p>After telling of the worst of the disciples, i.e., of Judas and his betrayal, Luke </p><p>included materials that involve what it means to be the greatest (Luke 22:24) of </p><p>the disciples. </p><p>A dispute over who was to be considered the greatest among the disciples </p><p>became an occasion for Jesus to teach about true greatness in Gods kingdom. </p><p>Jesus contrasted the attitude and values of the world with what it means to be </p><p>great in Gods kingdom. Even as membership in the kingdom is the reverse of </p><p>how the world thinks, for the last have become first and the first last (13:30), so </p><p>too greatness within the kingdom is the reverse of how the world thinks. In </p><p>this world the first (kings) rule and exercise their authority over the last (their </p><p>subjects). Great people in this world are served by others under them. But Jesus </p><p>had not come to be served but rather to serve. He came to pour out his blood in </p><p>order to establish a new covenant (22:20). Thus to be great in the kingdom means </p><p>to follow Jesus and to become one who serves, to think of oneself as having the </p><p>least rights, i.e., to be the youngest. </p><p>22:24 Also a dispute arose among them. As to which of them was </p><p>considered to be greatest. Greatest is literally greater. </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>22:25 The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them. And thos...</p></li></ul>