March 24, 2013 ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON March 24, 2013 ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON THE LORD’S SUPPER MINISTRY INVOCATION “Almighty God: Our existence is predicated on Your Love for us and for that we are humbled as well as blessed.

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1 March 24, 2013 ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON THE LORDS SUPPER MINISTRY INVOCATION Almighty God: Our existence is predicated on Your Love for us and for that we are humbled as well as blessed. There is No One greater than You. In Jesus Name, Amen. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW AND UNDERSTAND Lukes account of Jesus eating with His disciples is one of the most dramatic of the table scenes. Jesus announced His imminent death, which he linked with the fulfillment of Gods redemptive purposes. He predicted His betrayal at the hands of one whose hand is with [Jesus] on the table. THE APPLIED FULL GOSPEL DISTINCTIVE We believe in the Divine Personhood of the Holy Spirit and His present-day ministry to Believers, including the sovereign distribution of spiritual gifts, which empowers Believers for service in the contemporary church. TEXT: Background Scripture Luke 22:14-30 Key Verse Luke 22:26 Lesson Scripture Luke 22:14-30 (NKJV) The Passover is Celebrated 14 When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. 15 Then He said to them, With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God. 17 Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this and divide it among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes. The Lords Supper is Instituted 19 And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me. 20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you. 2 Christ Predicts His Betrayer 21 But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table. 22 And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed! 23 Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing. The Disciples Argue Over Who is the Greatest 24 Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest. 25 And He said to them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are called benefactors. 26 But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves. 27 For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? Yet I am among you as the One who serves. 28 But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials. 29 And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me, 30 that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. COMMENTARY The account of the Lords Supper is the seventh meal scene found in Luke. The Lukan version of the Lords Supper differs from the parallel accounts in Mark and Matthew in two major ways. First, he placed Jesus statement about his betrayal after rather than before the supper. He may have done this for literary reasons in order to give a more orderly account of the events surrounding Jesus passion. Second, he had a tradition of an earlier cup (22:1518) that gives the unusual order of cup-bread-cup. It seems reasonably certain that the Lords Supper was associated with a Passover meal for the following reasons: the Passover had to be eaten within the walled city of Jerusalem, and the Lords Supper was also eaten within the walled city; the Passover evening had to be spent in greater Jerusalem, which included the Mount of Olives, but not Bethany, and Jesus and the disciples spent that evening in the garden of Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives; Jesus and the disciples reclined at the Lords Supper and this was required at the Passover, whereas at most meals one sat; the Lords Supper, like the Passover, was eaten in the evening, whereas most meals were eaten in the late afternoon; the Lords Supper ended with hymn. The Passover was a carefully ordered ritual in which each element of the meal reminded the participants of their redemption from Egypt. At the end of the meal someone (usually the youngest son) was designated to ask, Why is this 3 night different from other nights? The host of the meal, in this instance Jesus, would recount the exodus story. The story tells of Gods remembering his covenant; deliverance from slavery in Egypt; the blood of the Passover lamb; Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed; the interpretation of the elements of the Passover meal; and a call for the continual celebration of the Passover. 22:14 When the hour came. In Jesus setting this referred to the hour to celebrate the Passover, but for Lukes readers this could mean the hour in which Jesus would bring his mission to completion. Jesus and his apostles reclined at the table. The last supper, as all celebrations of the Lords Supper, was meant for those who professed to be Jesus followers Jesus and his apostles reclined is literally he reclined, and his disciples with him. The wording emphasizes Jesus initiative. The Passover was eaten in a reclining position, i.e., lying on the side facing a short table with cushions under the arm. 22:15 I have eagerly desired. It can be understood in several ways: (1) as an unfulfilled wish, i.e., I have desired but unfortunately will not be able to eat this Passover. In Luke, Jesus clearly eats the Passover (Luke 22:11, 15); (2) I have looked forward to sharing the joy of eating the Passover with you, to teach you of the new covenant in my blood and to bring my work to a conclusion. (3) I have desired to participate in this (or possibly a future) Passover with you but will not. This Passover. This can mean the Passover lamb or the Passover meal. Before I suffer. For Luke the whole scene of the Lords Supper centered around Jesus suffering. 22:16 I will not eat it again. This is the strongest negation possible in Greek and refers not to abstinence from the present Passover but to the fact that His forthcoming death would prohibit Him from sharing future Passovers with the disciples. Until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God. This refers to the time of the messianic banquet at the end of history, i.e., when the kingdom is consummated. What the it refers to is unclear. It cannot be the kingdom of God because the it is distinguished from the kingdom. Probably it is best understood as referring to the Passover as a type of the messianic banquet. Jesus would not share again in such a banquet meal with the disciples until Gods kingdom has been consummated. 22:17 After taking a cup. The cup is one of the earlier cups associated with the Passover meal. He gave thanks. Take this and divide it among you. A single cup probably was shared by the disciples. Whether Jesus himself partook of this cup is unclear. 4 22:18 For I tell you. I will not drink again until the kingdom of God comes. No distinction should be made between the drinking mentioned here and the eating mentioned in 22:16. They simply are descriptive of eating a meal and in particular the messianic banquet. 22:19 And he took bread. Bread refers to a loaf of bread whether leavened or unleavened. Gave thanks. Luke used thanks (eucharistsas), from which we get Eucharist, rather than thanks (eulogsas) or bless. There is little difference in meaning between these two Greek terms. This is my body. As Jesus earlier interpreted the unleavened bread in the Passover ritual, so in the Lords Supper He also interpreted the bread. This refers to the bread just mentioned. The bread represents the body of Jesus in the sense that it represents Jesus. The bread thus represents the Word [which] became flesh, not the flesh alone but the person who tabernacled in flesh. Given. Given is literally being given. It is unclear whether the Giver is understood as Jesus or God. Probably the latter is meant, but there would be little difference in Lukes understanding, for Jesus is Gods Son. This is. This is is best understood metaphorically in symbolizes/represents rather than this has now become/been transformed into. For you. Given for you explains how the bread, i.e., the self-giving of Jesus, relates to the believer. Do this in remembrance of me. This is not to be interpreted Do this in order that God might remember me but rather Do this, i.e., share the bread and the cup, in your celebration of the Lords Supper remembering me, my work, and my presence among you. 22:20 After the supper. The Lords Supper comes at the end of the Passover and builds on its imagery. This cup is. The fact that drinking blood was forbidden by the law (Lev 3:17; 7:2627; 17:14) makes it most difficult to think the disciples and early Jewish Christians thought that in drinking the cup they were actually drinking real blood. The new covenant in my blood. The cup is understood as representing sacrificial blood that inaugurates and seals a new covenant. Which is poured out for you. Jesus death lies within Gods providential rule and plan. Jesus both knew of his coming death and saw it as involving a divine necessity. Jesus would die because God had given him over to death. Thus, His death was not a surprise or tragedy but the fulfillment of Gods purpose and plan. Luke by repeating this tradition may also have been seeking to assure his readers that their practice of 5 celebrating the Lords Supper stemmed from Jesus Himself. Thus, they could know the certainty of this practice that they had been taught (1:4). Within the present account, we also have a strong eschatological emphasis concerning the future consummation of Gods kingdom. Jesus will not return and share the messianic banquet until the final consummation when the events of 21:2536 take place. Luke most clearly portrayed the arrival of Gods kingdom in Jesus ministry. Although Satan already had fallen from heaven (10:18), the promised Spirit was present among them and a new covenant had been established, Luke reminded his readers that their celebration of the Lords Supper revealed that the final consummation was still in the future. As among their Jewish contemporaries, the Passover awakened hopes and longings for the coming of the messianic banquet, so even more should the Lords Supper cause readers to look not only backward to their Lords death but forward to his return. Luke understood Jesus death as being both sacrificial and vicarious. Jesus death is understood as sacrificial blood poured out to establish a new covenant (22:20). His death is vicarious because it is for you (22:1920). Later in Acts 20:28 he again revealed that he was in agreement with the traditions teaching of the vicarious and sacrificial nature of Jesus death. 22:21 But. Literally But behold. The foretelling of the Judass betrayal is closely tied to the Lords Supper. The hand of him. This expression is used to represent the whole (Judas). Who is going to betray me. Literally who is in the process of betraying me. The betrayal had already begun (22:36). With mine on the table. This is better translated with me at the table. Luke revealed that participation in the Lords Supper does not guarantee membership in Gods kingdom. 22:22 The Son of Man. Will go. Literally proceeds. The certainty of this future event is so great it can be spoken of in the present tense. What Jesus had begun was about to be accomplished. As it has been decreed. What was about to happen would occur because God had ordained it. The use of decreed instead of written reveals Lukes interest in emphasizing that Jesus death fulfills the divine plan and purpose. But woe to that man who betrays him. Any attempt to romanticize Judass role in fulfilling the divine plan is shipwrecked on this statement. The Evangelists understood Judas as damning himself by his action. The verse is a good example of how divine sovereignty and human responsibility exist alongside each other. 6 22:23 They began to question among themselves. The horror of betrayal by a friend was far greater in biblical times than today. Compare in I Corinthians 11:2930 how Christians sitting at table with the risen Lord and betraying him is also seen as resulting in judgment and even death. Which of them it might be who would do this. Judas was still present with the disciples. After the Lords Supper, Luke pointed out Jesus knowledge of the future and his awareness of what was about to take place. He was even aware that one of the Twelve was in the process of betraying him. As a prophet and as the Son of God, he was not caught unawares as to what was about to happen. Luke expected his readers to understand the Christological implications of this. He also expected they would see Gods sovereign rule and control in this as well. Even the betrayal is in accord with the divine plan. The desire of the chief priests, teachers of the law, the decision of Judas, and even the role of Satan were seen by Luke as serving the divine purpose. God is in control. Luke did not explain how individual responsibility, in the case of Judas and the Jewish leadership, and the divine foreknowledge and ordination of what was to take place fit together. What is clear is that Luke wanted his readers to know that Jesus death was not a tragedy but determined and foreknown and that Jesus and his Father were in complete control throughout. It was God who decreed what took place (22:22). After telling of the worst of the disciples, i.e., of Judas and his betrayal, Luke included materials that involve what it means to be the greatest (Luke 22:24) of the disciples. A dispute over who was to be considered the greatest among the disciples became an occasion for Jesus to teach about true greatness in Gods kingdom. Jesus contrasted the attitude and values of the world with what it means to be great in Gods kingdom. Even as membership in the kingdom is the reverse of how the world thinks, for the last have become first and the first last (13:30), so too greatness within the kingdom is the reverse of how the world thinks. In this world the first (kings) rule and exercise their authority over the last (their subjects). Great people in this world are served by others under them. But Jesus had not come to be served but rather to serve. He came to pour out his blood in order to establish a new covenant (22:20). Thus to be great in the kingdom means to follow Jesus and to become one who serves, to think of oneself as having the least rights, i.e., to be the youngest. 22:24 Also a dispute arose among them. As to which of them was considered to be greatest. Greatest is literally greater. 7 22:25 The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them. And those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors. The term benefactor was frequently used to describe gods, heroes, and kings who were in fact at times quite despotic, so that there may be some irony in this statement. 22:26 But you are not to be like that. The you is emphatic. Instead, the greatest among you. Jesus words are addressed to church leaders. The following words do not deny that there are leaders of the church. What they do is describe how such leaders are to lead. The greatest in the church are not to behave as the greatest in the world. The implications for Lukes readers of Jesus instructions to the apostles are sufficiently self-evident that no direct application needed to be made by the Evangelist. Should be like the youngest. Youngest is literally younger. The youngest does not refer to an established group in the church. Rather the youngest represent people who possess the least claim for ruling over others. And the one who rules like the one who serves. The one who rules may be a semitechnical term for an officer in the church. The Greek word for serves is diakonn, from which the word deacon comes. The terms serves, servant, and service occur over ninety times in the NT. Elsewhere Jesus described himself as one who came to serve. 22:27 For who is greater, the one who. Jesus introduced two rhetorical questions that describe the worlds thinking and value system. Greatness in the worlds eyes involves being served by others. There may be a possible allusion here to the office of deacon, whose responsibility it is to serve [literally service]; wait on tables [literally to serve tables]). But I am among you as one who serves. Although Jesus is clearly greater than the disciples, his behavior during his earthly ministry was one of serving them. Thus, one who would follow Jesus also should be servant of all. 22:28 You are those who have stood by me in my trials. The disciples had continued with Jesus during his times of trial. This can only mean that throughout Jesus past trials (not just the recent ones in Jerusalem) they were with Him. Yet they only joined him after the temptation. Thus, whereas Jesus may in his ministry, have been spared from a direct frontal attack of Satan, this does not mean that Satan was not active in seeking to undermine and thwart His ministry. During all this time, the disciples were with Him. Although the disciples would themselves face trials in the future, the trials in this verse look backward, not forward, and are associated with Jesus, not them. 22:29 And I confer on you a kingdom, just as my Father conferred one on me. The term confer (diatithemai) can also mean make a covenant with and thus brings to mind the new covenant (diathk) of 22:20. The covenant ultimately 8 involved the promise of sharing in the future consummation of the kingdom when the Son of Man returns to reign. 22:30 So that you might eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. Luke was consciously tying this saying to Luke 22:16, 18, where Jesus spoke of His not eating or drinking with the apostles again until He does so with them in Gods kingdom. And sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Luke may have omitted the reference to the twelve thrones because due to Judass betrayal, there were only eleven apostles at the time. Exactly what was meant by this verse is debated. It is best to understand this promise as referring to that time when the believer will share in the benefits of Jesus kingly rule. Like the first promise, this one is best understood metaphorically as referring to participating in the consummated kingdom where believers experience the blessings of their Lords reign. Although there is a sense in which Jesus already at his resurrection reigned as King, the kingly rule referred to here will take place in the consummation at the redemption brought by the Son of Man. Luke reminded his readers that greatness in Gods kingdom is contrary to the worlds values, for it involves serving rather than being served. If there were deacons among Lukes readers, they might have been reminded that their office was one of service (cf. Acts 6:16). The rich were reminded that they should serve the poor. Luke, like Jesus, was well aware that even within the fellowship of the believing community a this-world attitude toward power and greatness could still be present. Greatness, however, means service; it means to live as if one were the youngest or least. Such faithfulness, however, will not go unrewarded. Jesus, in his reign promises his followers that they will share in the benefits of that rule. What awaits Jesus will be shared with his followers. Lukes readers are encouraged to seek a role of servanthood because Jesus has promised that such faithfulness, endurance and following will result in treasure in heaven. Such people will dine with Jesus in Gods kingdom. He who announced the coming of Gods kingdom is its King and will in the consummation reign as king. Already at His entry into Jerusalem, Luke has shown that Jesus entered as the awaited King RELATED DISCUSSION TOPICS CLOSING PRAYER O God: We are eternally grateful for the sacrifice of Your Son, Jesus, to save us from condemnation of sin. Cover us that we may never opt to betray You as did Judas, but to continually bless Your Name. Amen.

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