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Ingen bildrubrik

G till frsta sidanManure handlingGran CarlsonJTI - Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering

Nutrient flows from agriculture

Components in manure

WaterSpilt waterDishwaterCleaning waterPrecipitation - evaporationLitterBedding materialFeed residuals

Factors influencing the distribution of components in manure

1

2

Components in manure

Type of animal

Type of animal keeping system

Production level

Selected technical solutions

Management

in stables

outdoors

Feaces

Yes

Yes

Urine

Yes

Yes

Yes

Water

Spilt water

Yes

Yes

Dishwater

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cleaning water

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Precipitation -evaporation

Yes

Litter

Bedding material

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Feed residuals

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

PAGE

JTI Jordbrukstekniska institutet

Chemical composition of Solid and Semi-solid manureBild diagram flyt- resp fastgdselKg/tonnesTotal NAmmonia NPhosphorusPotassium

Chemical composition of slurryKg/tonnesPhosphorusAmmonia NPotassiumTotal N

Availability and loss of N for manure from milking cows

Aspects on manure handling systems

Manurehandlingsystem

Animalwelfare

Production efficiency

Workingconditions

Conditions

for nutrient

utilisation

Investmentneeds

Educationneeds

Costefficiency

Sustain-ability

In barns

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Yes large

Yes

Could be high

Probable

Bad

Bad

Low

Bad

Bad

Yes

Yes

Could be low

No

Storage

Good

Good

Could be good

Good

Yes,large

Yes

Depends

Probable

Bad

Could be bad

Bad

Could be bad

Bad

Yes

Yes

Depends

No

Spreading

Good

Good

Good

Good

Yes,large

Yes

Depends

Probable

Bad

Could be bad

Bad

Bad

Yes

Yes

Depends

No

Basic rules for planning manure handling systems

Analyse and discuss the situation on each farm in order to select a suitable manure handling system which: Optimises utilisation of nutrients Supports good animal welfare to achieve high production Create good and safe working conditions

Basic rules for planning manure handling systems, cont.

The most suitable manure handling system for an individual farm could not be selected without taking into account: All other handling chains on the farm The farmers knowledge and future plans The farmers economic situation

Important parameters for planning of manure handling systemsSelection of handling system depends on the farmers knowledge, interests and planning horizon

Parameters

In barns

Storage

Spreading

Specific situation on individual farms

Economic situation

Yes

Yes

Yes

Type of animal

Yes

Yes

Yes

Number of animals

Yes

Yes

Yes

Production level

Yes

Yes

Yes

Favourable technology

For large farms

Available

Available

Available

For small farms

Available

Hard to find

Co-operation

Legislation and rules

Animal welfare

Yes

Nitrate directive/GAP

Yes

Yes

Yes

Permits for large farms

Yes

Yes

Yes

Occupational health

Yes

Yes

Yes

Construction rules

Yes

JTI - Institutet fr jordbruks- och miljteknik

Economy slurry handling, EEKExample: Pig farm (5 000/year), trailing hoses

Income, EEK/tonneNitrogen 28,90Phosphorus 21,90Potassium * 0,90

Total 51,70 * Not utilised maximally

Costs, EEK/tonneStorage 30,42Loading 7,30Transportation 7,76Spreading 40,46Soil compaction 1,67 Total 87,61

Types of manure in SwedenAccording to Satistics Sweden1987/881992/931998/99020406080100Solid manureSemi-solidmanureUrineSlurry

Mucking out

Why should I work for a well functioning manure handling system in my barn? Higher production Cleaner animals Better animal health Better hygienic status Better working conditions

Tabell

Dairy production

Slurry

Type of keepingLoose housing barn with cubicles

Production level kg/cow and year6,0008,000

Components in manureAmounts in kg/cowAmounts in kg/cow

Daily8 monthsDaily8 months

Bedding material kg/day and cow1.1264.01.2288.0264.0360.02,280.0

Feaces and urine kg/day and cow50.512,120.052.712,648.012,120.09,456.09,456.0

Urine kg/day and cow0.00.00.03,312.03,312.0

Washing water kg/day and cow12.02,880.012.02,880.02,880.02,160.02,880.0

Rainwater, evaporation adjusted1,200.01,300.01,200.02,800.00.0

Total63.616,46465.917,11616,464.018,088.017,928.0

Solid manure

Type of keepingTraditional barn, tired animals

Production level kg/cow and year6,0008,000288.0384.02,520.0

Components in manureAmounts in kg/cowAmounts in kg/cow12,648.09,864.09,864.0

Daily8 monthsDaily8 months0.03,456.03,456.0

Bedding material kg/day and cow1.5360.01.6384.02,880.02,160.02,880.0

Feaces kg/day and cow39.49,456.041.19,864.01,300.03,000.00.0

Urine kg/day and cow13.83,312.014.43,456.017,116.018,864.018,720.0

Washing water kg/day and cow9.02,160.09.02,160.0

Rainwater, evaporation adjusted2,800.03,000.0

Total63.718,08866.118,864

Litter

Type of keepingLoose housing, deep straw litter

Production level kg/cow and year6,0008,000

Components in manureAmounts in kg/cowAmounts in kg/cow

Daily8 monthsDaily8 months

Bedding material kg/day and cow9.52,280.010.52,520.0

Feaces kg/day and cow39.49,456.041.19,864.0

Urine kg/day and cow13.83,312.014.43,456.0

Washing water kg/day and cow12.02,880.012.02,880.0

Rainwater, evaporation adjusted0.00.0

Total74.717,92878.018,720

Slurry

2641212028801200

2881264828801300

Milk production, kg/cow and year

Beddign material

Feaces and urine

Washing water

Rainwater

Amount of slurryper 8 months

Slurry, dairy production

Solid manure

3609456331221602800

3849864345621603000

Milk production, kg/cow and year

Bedding material

Feaces

Urine

Washing water etc.

Rainwater

Amount of slurryper 8 months

Solid manure, dairy production

Deept straw litter

22809456331228800

25209864345628800

Milk production, kg/cow and year

Bedding material

Feaces

Urine

Washing water

Rainwater

Amount of slurryper 8 months

Deep straw litter, dairy production

Production 6000

26412120028801200

3609456331221602800

22809456331228800

Manure handling system

Bedding material

Feaces

Urine

Washing water etc.

Rainwater

Amount of manureper 8 months

Production of manuremilk production 6 000 kg/cow and year

Production 8000

28812648028801300

09864345621603000

25209864345628800

Manure handling system

Bedding material

Feaces

Urine

Washing water etc.

Rainwater

Amount of manureper 8 month

Production of manure, milk production 8 000 kg/cow and year

Tabell

Dairy production

Slurry

Type of keepingLoose housing barn with cubicles

Production level kg/cow and year6,0008,000

Components in manureAmounts in kg/cowAmounts in kg/cow

Daily8 monthsDaily8 months

Bedding material kg/day and cow1.1264.01.2288.0264.0360.02,280.0

Feaces and urine kg/day and cow50.512,120.052.712,648.012,120.09,456.09,456.0

Urine kg/day and cow0.00.00.03,312.03,312.0

Washing water kg/day and cow12.02,880.012.02,880.02,880.02,160.02,880.0

Rainwater, evaporation adjusted1,200.01,300.01,200.02,800.00.0

Total63.616,46465.917,11616,464.018,088.017,928.0

Solid manure

Type of keepingTraditional barn, tired animals

Production level kg/cow and year6,0008,000288.0384.02,520.0

Components in manureAmounts in kg/cowAmounts in kg/cow12,648.09,864.09,864.0

Daily8 monthsDaily8 months0.03,456.03,456.0

Bedding material kg/day and cow1.5360.01.6384.02,880.02,160.02,880.0

Feaces kg/day and cow39.49,456.041.19,864.01,300.03,000.00.0

Urine kg/day and cow13.83,312.014.43,456.017,116.018,864.018,720.0

Washing water kg/day and cow9.02,160.09.02,160.0

Rainwater, evaporation adjusted2,800.03,000.0

Total63.718,08866.118,864

Litter

Type of keepingLoose housing, deep straw litter

Production level kg/cow and year6,0008,000

Components in manureAmounts in kg/cowAmounts in kg/cow

Daily8 monthsDaily8 months

Bedding material kg/day and cow9.52,280.010.52,520

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