management richard l. daft. motivating employees chapter 17

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MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT

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  • MANAGEMENTRICHARD L. DAFT0

  • Motivating EmployeesCHAPTER 170

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    Learning OutcomesDefine motivation and explain the difference between current approaches and traditional approaches to motivation.Identify and describe content theories of motivation based on employee needs.Identify and explain process theories of motivation.Describe reinforcement theory and how it can be used to motivate employees.Discuss major approaches to job design and how job design influences motivation.Explain how empowerment heightens employee motivation.Describe ways that managers can create a sense of meaning and importance for employees at work.

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    Are You Engaged or Disengaged?Employee EngagementMost people begin new jobs with energy and enthusiasmEmployees can lose their driveMotivated and engaged employees contribute to organizational successBut motivation is a challenge for managers.0

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    Concept of MotivationArousal, direction, and persistence of behavior

    Employee motivation affects productivity.

    A managers job is to channel motivation.0

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    Two Types of RewardsIntrinsic rewards--satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action.

    Extrinsic rewards--given by another person.0

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    A Simple Model of Motivation0Motivation can lead to behaviors that reflect high performance within organizations.

    High employee motivation is related to high organizational performance and profits.

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    Content Perspectives on MotivationHierarchy of Needs Theory ERG Theory Two-Factor Theory Acquired Needs TheoryThese theories emphasize the needs that motivate people.0

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    Maslows Hierarchy of Needs0According to Maslows Theory, low-order needs take prioritythey must be satisfied before higher-order needs are activated.

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    Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsOnce a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated

    There are opportunities for fulfillment off the job and on the job in each of the five levels of needs

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    ERG TheoryERG is a simplification of Maslow.Three categories of needs:Existence needs. The needs for physical well-being.Relatedness needs. The needs for satisfactory relationships with others.Growth needs. The needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth.0

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    Two-Factor Motivation Theory0

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    Acquired Needs TheoryNeed for Achievement. desire to accomplish something difficult, master complex tasks, and surpass others.Need for Affiliation. desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendships.Need for Power. desire to influence or control others.

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    Process Perspectives on MotivationGoal-Setting TheoryEquity Theory Expectancy TheoryThese theories explain how people select behavioral actions to meet their needs.0

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    Goal-SettingSpecific, challenging targets significantly enhance peoples motivation and performance.Managers can improve performance by setting specific goals.Goal-setting theory requires:Specific GoalsDifficult GoalsAcceptanceFeedback0

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    Equity TheoryFocuses on individuals perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others

    Motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance0

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    Methods for Reducing Perceived InequitiesChange Work EffortsChange OutcomesChange PerceptionsLeave the Job0Employees evaluate the perceived equity of their rewards compared to others.

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    Expectancy TheoryMotivation depends on individuals expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewardsFocuses on the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewardsBased on the effort, performance, and desirability of outcomes

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    Major Elements of Expectancy TheoryValence the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome0

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    Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation0

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    Job Design for MotivationJob Design - application of motivational theories to the structure of work 0

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    Job Design for MotivationJob Simplification - improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasksJob Rotation - moving employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulationJob Enlargement - combining a series of tasks into one new, broader job to give employees variety and challenge0

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    Job Design for MotivationJob Enrichment - incorporating achievement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the workWork redesign altering jobs to increase both the quality of employees work experience and their productivity0

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    Job Characteristics Model0

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    Innovative Ideas for Motivating0

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    Empowering People to Meet Higher NeedsInformation - Employees receive information about company performanceKnowledge - Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goalsPower - Employees have the power to make substantive decisionsRewards - Employees are rewarded based on the company performance0

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    A Continuum of Empowerment0

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    Giving Meaning to Work Through Engagement0There is growing recognition that it is the behavior of managers that makes the biggest difference in whether people feel engaged at work.