makam - islamic music theory

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3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 1/7MakamFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSee also: List of Makams and Arabic maqamMakam (pl. makamlar; from the Arabic word ) is a system of melody types used in Turkish classicalmusic. It provides a complex set of rules for composing and performance. Each makam specifies a uniqueintervalic structure (cinsler) and melodic development (seyir).[1]Whether a fixed composition (beste, arki, perev, yin, etc.) or a spontaneous composition (gazel, taksim,recitation of Kuran-i Kerim, Mevlid, etc.), all attempt to follow the melody type.Contents1 Geographic and cultural relations2 Makam building blocks2.1 Commas and accidentals2.2 Notes2.3 Intervals2.4 Tetrachords (drtller) and pentachords (beliler)3 Basic makam theory4 Simple Makams4.1 rgh Makam4.2 Bselik Makam4.3 Rast Makam4.4 Uk Makam4.5 Acem Makam5 Notes6 Sources7 External linksGeographic and cultural relationsSome theories suggest the origin of Makam to be the city of Mosul in Iraq. "Mula Othman Al-Musili," inreference to his city of origin, is said to have served in the Ottoman Palace in Istanbul and influencedTurkish Ottoman music. More distant modal relatives include those of Central Asian Turkic musics such asUyghur music, muqam and Uzbek music, shashmakom. The raga of (both North and South) Indianclassical music employs similar modal principles. Some scholars find echoes of Turkish makam in formerOttoman provinces of the Balkans.[2] All of these concepts roughly correspond to mode in Western music,although their compositional rules vary.The rhythmic counterpart of makam in Turkish music is usul.Makam building blocksCommas and accidentals3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 2/7The basic notes named according to the solfege system and thus, forexample, "Do" is C and "Re" is D.In Turkish music theory, one wholetone is divided into nine commas. Thefollowing figure gives the commavalues of Turkish accidentals. In thecontext of the Arab maqam, thissystem is not of equal temperament.In fact, in the Western system oftemperament, C-sharp and D-flat-which are functionally the same tone-are equivalent to 4.5 commas in theTurkish system; thus, they fall directlyin the center of the line depictedabove.NotesUnlike in Western music, where the note C, for example, is called C regardless of what octave it might bein, in the Turkish system the notes are-for the most part-individually named (although many arevariations on a basic name); this can be seen in the following table, which covers the notes from middle C("Kaba rgh") to the same note two octaves above ("Tz rgh"):IntervalsThe names and symbols of the different intervals is shown in the table below:3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 3/7Tetrachords (drtl) are on the left, pentachords (beli) on the right.The symbols (simge) from the table above are here used to signal theintervals used in these patternsInterval Name(Araligin adi)Value in terms of commas(Koma olarak degeri)Symbol(Simge)koma or fazla 1 Feksik bakiye 3 Ebakiye 4 Bkck mcenneb 5 Sbyk mcenneb 8 Ktanni 9 Tartik ikili 12 - 13 ATetrachords (drtller) and pentachords (beliler)Similar to the construction ofmaqamat noted above, a makam inTurkish music is built of a tetrachordbuilt atop a pentachord, or vice versa(trichords exist but are little used).Additionally, most makams havewhat is known as a "development"(genileme in Turkish) either above orbelow, or both, the tonic and/or thehighest note.There are 6 basic tetrachords, namedsometimes according to their tonicnote and sometimes according to thetetrachord's most distinctive note:rghBselikKrdUkHicaz andRastThere are also 6 basic pentachordswith the same names with a tone (T) appended.It is worth keeping in mind that these patterns can be transposed to any note in the scale, so that the tonic A(Dgh) of the Hicaz tetrachord, for example, can be moved up a major second/9 commas to B (Bselik),or in fact to any other note. The other notes of the tetrachord, of course, are also transposed along with thetonic, allowing the pattern to preserve its character.Basic makam theoryA makam, more than simply a selection of notes and intervals, is essentially a guide to compositionalstructure: any composition in a given makam will move through the notes of that makam in a more or lessordered way (in this, it resembles a tone row la Schoenberg or Webern). This pattern is known inTurkish as seyir (meaning basically, "route"), and there are three types of seyir:3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 4/7rising (ikici);falling (inici);falling-rising (inici-ikici)As stated above, makams are built of a tetrachord plus a pentachord (or vice versa), and in terms of thisconstruction, there are three important notes in the makam:the durak ("tonic"), which is the initial note of the first tetrachord or pentachord and which alwaysconcludes any piece written in the makam;the gl ("dominant"), which is the first note of the second tetrachord or pentachord, and which isused as a temporary tonic in the middle of a piece (in this sense, it is somewhat similar to the axialpitches mentioned above in the context of Arab music). This use of the term "dominant" is not to beconfused with the Western dominant; while the gl is often the fifth scale degree, it can just asoften be the fourth, and occasionally the third;the yeden ("leading tone"), which is most often the penultimate note of any piece and which resolvesinto the tonic; this is sometimes an actual Western leading tone and sometimes a Western subtonic.Additionally, there are three types of makam as a whole:simple makams (basit makamlar), almost all of which have a rising seyir;transposed makams (grlm makamlar), which as the name implies are the simple makamstransposed to a different tonic;compound makams (bileik/mrekkep makamlar), which are a joining of differing makams andnumber in the hundredsSimple Makamsrgh MakamThis makam is thought to be identical to the Western C-major scale, but actually it is misleading toconceptualize a makam through western music scales. argah consists of a rgh pentachord and argh tetrachord starting on the note Gerdaniye (G). Thus, the tonic is C (rgh), the dominant G(Gerdaniye), and the leading tone B (Bselik). (N.B. In this and all subsequent staves, the tonic isindicated by a whole note and the dominant by a half note.)The rgh makam though is very little used in Turkish music, and in fact has at certain points of historybeen attacked for being a clumsy and unpleasant makam that can inspire those hearing it to engage indelinquency of various kinds.Bselik MakamThis makam has two basic forms: in the first basic form (1), it consists of a Bselik pentachord plus aKrd tetrachord on the note Hseyn (E) and is essentially the same as the Western A-minor; in the second(2), it consists of a Bselik pentachord plus a Hicaz tetrachord on Hseyn and is identical to A-harmonicminor. The tonic is A (Dgh), the dominant Hseyn (E), and the leading tone G-sharp (Nim Zirgle).3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 5/7Additionally, when descending from the octave towards the tonic, the sixth (F, Acem) is sometimessharpened to become F-sharp (Dik Acem), and the dominant (E, Hseyn) flattened four commas to thenote Hisar (1A). All these alternatives are shown below:1) 2) 1A) 5DVW0DNDPAlso see Rast (maqam)This much-used makam-which is said to bring happiness and tranquility to the hearer-consists of a Rastpentachord plus a Rast tetrachord on the note Neva (D); this is labeled (1) below. The tonic is G (Rast), thedominant D (Neva), and the leading tone F-sharp (Irak). However, when descending from the octavetowards the tonic, the leading tone is always flattened 4 commas to the note Acem (F), and thus a Bseliktetrachord replaces the Rast tetrachord; this is labeled (2) below. Additionally, there is a development(genileme) in the makam's lower register, below the tonic, which consists of a Rast tetrachord on the noteD (Yegh); this is labeled (1A) below.1) 1A) 3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 6/72) In Turkey, the particular Muslim call to prayer (or ezan in Turkish) which occurs generally in earlyafternoon and is called ikindi, as well as the day's final call to prayer called yatsi, is often recited using theRast makam.Uk MakamAlso see Bayati (maqam).This makam consists of an Uk tetrachord plus a Bselik pentachord on the note Neva (D); this islabelled (1) below. The tonic is A (Dgh), the dominant-here actually a subdominant-is D (Neva), andthe leading tone-here actually a subtonic-is G (Rast). Additionally, there is a development in themakam's lower register, which consists of a Rast pentachord on the note D (Yegh); this is labeled (1A)below.1) 1A) In Turkey, the particular call to prayer which occurs around noon and is called gle is most often recitedusing the Uak makam.Acem MakamSee Ajam (maqam).Notes1.^ Beken and Signell 20062.^ Shupo, Sokol, ed., Urban Music in the Balkans. Tirana:ASMUS, 2006Sourceszkan, Ismail Hakki. Trk Msiksi Nazariyati ve Uslleri. Kudm Velveleleri. (2000). ISBN 975-437-017-6.Beken, Mnir and Karl Signell. "Confirming, delaying, and deceptive elements in Turkish3/8/13 Makam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 7/7improvisation," Mqam Traditions of Turkic Peoples, Elsner and Jhnishen, eds. Berlin:trafo, 2006.ISBN 3-89626-657-8 http://www.umbc.edu/eol/makam/2008Kongre/confirming.htmlSignell, Karl L. Makam: Modal Practice in Turkish Art Music. Nokomis FL (USA): Usuleditions/Lulu.com. (1977/2004). ISBN 0-9760455-0-8:--- Makam: Trk Sanat Musikisinde Makam Uygulamasi (Turkish translation of above). Istanbul:Yapi Kredi Kltr Sanat Yayincilik, 2006. ISBN 975-08-1080-5.Yilmaz, Zeki. Trk Msiksi Dersleri. (2001). ISBN 975-95729-1-5.External linksKlasik Trk (Tasavvuf) Musikisi Ilahi Perev Saz sema