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Diapositiva 1

Major ConnectorsPresented by : Apurva Thampi

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ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningTypes of Mandibular major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningRecent advancesConclusion References2

IntroductionName of components descriptive of function

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ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningTypes of Mandibular major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningRecent advancesConclusion References4

Major connectorsA major connector joins the components of the removable partial denture from one side of the arch to the opposite side

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ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningTypes of Mandibular major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningRecent advancesConclusion References6

Role of major connectorsBe rigidProtect the associated soft tissueProvide means for obtaining indirect retentionProvide a means of placement of denture basePromote patient comfortSelf cleansing

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Rigidity :

Permits broad distribution of forcesProtect soft tissue:

Maxillary connector 6mm from marginal gingiva

Mandibular connector 3mm from marginal gingiva

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The marginal gingiva are highly vascular and susceptible to injury under sustained pressure8

Provide means of indirect retention:

By use of indirect retainers, rotation around the fulcrum line can be preventedPromote patient comfort:

Edges should be contoured

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Major connector is based on the principle of leverage10

It will limit movement possibilities by acting as a counter-acting lever

CROSS-ARCH STABILITY

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Requirements of maxillary major connectorsBorders 6mm from gingival marginsAnterior border should blend with the palatal anatomyBorders should cross the margins at right anglesPalatal strap 8mm wideOpen central connectors medial borders should be located at the junction of horizontal and vertical surfaces

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Thickness of the plate should be uniformBorders should be gently curvedIntaglio surface should not be highly polished13

ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningTypes of Mandibular major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningRecent advancesConclusion References14

Types of Maxillary major connectors15

Palatal bar

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Narrow, half ovalThickest point at the centreGentle curved and should not form an angle

Indicationsclass III (short span) application

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18Advantage/Disadvantage

Palatal strap

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Most versatileBand of metal with a thin cross-sectional dimensionA-P dimension should not be less than 8mm

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Width should be increased with the length of the edentulous spanIndication Kennedys class II

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22Advantage/Disadvantage

Antero-posterior palatal bar

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Palatal bar + palatal strap2 bars joined by a flat longitudinal element

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Advantage/Disadvantage25

Horse shoe connector

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Consists of a thin band of metalLingual surface of remaining teeth to palatal tissue 6-8 mmShould be symmetrical equal height on both sides27

Advantage/Disadvantage28

Horse shoe major connector has a tendency toFlex or deform. Hence it is not a good connector When cross arch stabilization in required.29

Antero-posterior palatal strap

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Maximum usageEach strap 8mm width, thin cross-sectionBorders 6mm from gingival marginPosterior strap should not contact soft palate

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Advantage/Disadvantage32

Complete palate

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Provides ultimate rigidity and supportMaximum tissue coverageMust be kept 6mm away from gingival marginsMechanical seal presence of bead line along posterior border34

ADVANTAGESAll posterior teeth to be replacedRemaining teeth are periodontally compromisedProvides vertical supportPermits force distribution to the teeth as well as the tissuesComfortable Coverage of multiple planes L beam effect35

DISADVANTAGESAdverse soft tissue reaction may occur soft tissue hyperplasia poor oral hygiene and prolonged periods of denture wearing36

Indications Case Type of major connectorWeak periodontal supportWide palatal strap or complete palateAdequate periodontal supportPalatal strap or A-P palatal strapLong-span distal extensionA-P palatal strap or complete palateAnterior teeth to be replacedA-P palatal strap, complete palate or horseshoe major connectorPresence of torusA-P palatal strap, A-P palatal bar, horse shoe connector

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Design of maxillary major connectors

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Requirements of mandibular major connectorsRigid without being bulkyMust not impinge on the movable floor of the mouthRelief required between the rigid metal connector and underlying tissues

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ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningTypes of Mandibular major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningRecent advancesConclusion References40

Types of mandibular major connectors41

Lingual bar

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Most frequently usedCross-section half pear shapedBroadest portion near the floor of the mouth8mm space between gingival margin and floor of the mouthPresence of mandibular tori surgical removal

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Lingual plate

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Half pear shaped this solid piece of metal extending from superior border to lingual surfaces of teethLingual border as low as possible - avoid interferences with functional movementsPlate must completely close the interproximal surfaces

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Superior border is knife-edged to avoid ledgingOpen embrasures or widely spaced teeth modification step backMetal should cross gingival margins at right anglesTo ensure rigidity inferior border should be made thickerLedging occurs when metal margins are thick or linear and provides unnatural contoursStep back modification requires the superior border of the plate to cover the cingulum of the individual tooth47

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Double lingual bar

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Lingual bar + lingual plateUpper and lower borders are similar to lingual plateNo continuous metal sheetUpper bar half oval cross-section (2-3 mm height and 1mm thickness)Two bars should be connected by rigid minor connectors

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Rests should be placed at each end of the bar no further posterior than 1st premolar

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Labial bar

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Runs across mucosa on facial surface Half pear shapedLonger than lingual barHeight and thickness must be greaterSuccessful treatment very limited

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SWING LOCK MODIFICATIONLabial component does not serve as major connectorHinge at one end and locking device on the otherPermits RPD to reach inaccessible undercuts55

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Indications Tooth supported RPDLingual bar Insufficient room between floor of mouth and gingival margins Lingual plateAnterior teeth with reduced periodontal supportLingual plateAnterior teeth with reduced periodontal support and large interproximal spacesDouble lingual barReplacement of all mandibular posteriorsLingual plate

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Design of mandibular major connectorsI outline basal seat area on the diagnostic castII outline inferior border of major connnectorIII outline superior border of Major connectorIV unification58

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ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningTypes of Mandibular major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in DesigningAcrylic dentures Recent advancesConclusion References60

Acrylic denturesMost commonly usedIndicated when the life of the denture is expected to be lessOr if relining may be necessaryWeaker and less rigid than the metal alloys - more likely to flex or fracture during function.61Connectors -J. C. Davenport, R.M.Basker, J. R. Heath, J. P. Ralph, PO. Glantz, and P. Hammond (BDJ)

INDICATIONSDuring the phase or rapid bone resorption after tooth lossWhen remaining teeth have poor prognosis, and an extraction and replacement is expectedInterim dentureIn growing individuals62Connectors -J. C. Davenport, R.M.Basker, J. R. Heath, J. P. Ralph, PO. Glantz, and P. Hammond (BDJ)

Design for the replacement of one or two anterior teeth in youngpeople is the 'spoon' denture. It reduces gingival margin coverage to aminimum, but a potential hazard is the risk of inhalation or ingestion.

A more stable and therefore more widely applicable design is themodified spoon denture. Here one has the choice of relying on frictionalcontact between the connector and the palatal surfaces of some of theposterior teeth, or of adding wrought wire clasps.63Connectors -J. C. Davenport, R.M.Basker, J. R. Heath, J. P. Ralph, PO. Glantz, and P. Hammond (BDJ)

Another acceptable design is the 'Every' denture which can be used forrestoring multiple bounded edentulous areas in the maxillary jaw.Acrylic RPDs in the mandible often lack tooth-support makingtissue damage highly probable. Such RPDs should thereforebe avoided whenever possible.64Connectors -J. C. Davenport, R.M.Basker, J. R. Heath, J. P. Ralph, PO. Glantz, and P. Hammond (BDJ)

ContentsIntroductionMajor connectorsRole of major connectorsTypes of maxillary major connectorsReview of indicationsSteps in Designin

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