magnetism. intro aurora borealis, or northern lights

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  • Magnetism

  • INTRO Aurora Borealis, or northern lights

  • People have been aware of magnets and magnetism for thousands of years, in region of Asia Minor called Magnesia, now part of western Turkey

    Magnetic rock, Lodestone or MagnetiteSouth-pointing spoon of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) a device for divination

  • First real application of magnets was used for navigation The compass was used in Song Dynasty China by the military for navigational orienteering by 1040-1044, and was used for maritime navigation by 1111 to 1117

    Chinese mariners the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century.

  • INTROEarly modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570)-freely pivoting needle on a pinA simple dry magnetic portable compass

  • A smartphone that can be used as a compassbecause of the magnetometer insideMagnetometers

    measure the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or to measure the strength and, in some cases, the direction of the magnetic field at a point in space

  • Todays Application giant magnetoresistance (and its applications to computer memory (used to read data in hard disk drives, biosensors..etc)

  • INTROElectric motors powering refrigerators, starting cars, and moving elevators- contain magnets

    Electric motors

  • INTRODUCTIONGeneratorsGenerators, whether producing hydroelectric power or running bicycle lights, use magnetic fieldBike generator

  • INTRODUCTIONRecycling facilities employ magnets to separate iron

  • INTRODUCTIONmagnetic containment of fusion as a future energy sourceThe Energy Source of Tomorrow/-! ?

  • INTRODUCTIONMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  • Japan's maglev train breaks world speed record with 600km/h test runlevitation of high-speed trains

  • INTRODUCTIONLarge Hadron Collider


  • MAGNETSAll magnets attract iron

    magnets may attract or repel other magnets

    all magnets have two poles

    two poles e north magnetic pole and the south magnetic pole

    (or more properly, north-seeking and south-seeking poles, for the attractions in those directions).

  • UNIVERSAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC POLESlike poles repel and unlike poles attract.

    (Note the similarity with electrostatics: unlike charges attract and like charges repel.)

    impossible to separate north and south poles in the manner that + and charges can be separated

  • MISCONCEPTION ALERT: EARTHS GEOGRAPHIC NORTH POLE HIDES AN SEarth acts like a very large bar magnet with its south-seeking pole near the geographic North Pole

    Confusion - North Pole has come to be used (incorrectly) for the magnetic pole that is near the North Pole. Thus, North magnetic poleit should be called the South magnetic pole.

  • The north pole of a compass needle is a magnetic north pole. It is attracted to the geographic North Pole, which is a magnetic south pole (opposite magnetic poles attract)

  • Magnetic atoms have both a north pole and a south pole, as do many types of subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons.North and south poles s occur in pairs.

    Attempts to separate them result in more pairs of poles. Continue to split the magnet, an iron atom with a north pole and a south polethese, too, cannot be separated

  • Section Summary

    Magnetism is a subject that includes the properties of magnets, the effect of the magnetic force on moving charges and currents, and the creation of magnetic fields by currents.

    There are two types of magnetic poles, called the north magnetic pole and south magnetic pole.

    North magnetic poles are those that are attracted toward the Earths geographic north pole.

    Like poles repel and unlike poles attract.

    Magnetic poles always occur in pairs of north and southit is not possible to isolate north and south poles.

  • Ferromagnets ONLY iron, cobalt, nickel, and gadolinium, exhibit strong magnetic effects called ferromagnetic, after the Latin word for iron, ferrum


  • Ferromagnetic materials can also be magnetized themselvescan be induced to be magnetic or made into permanent magnets.

  • The regions within the material called domains act like small bar magnetsAn unmagnetized piece of iron-randomly oriented domains

    Individual atoms are aligned within domains; each atom acts like a tiny bar magnet.

  • Demagnetizing demagnetized by hard blows (hitting it with a hammer) or by heating it in the absence of another magnet.


  • ElectromagnetsDanish scientist (17771851)a compass needle was deflected by a current-carrying wireElectromagnetism is the use of electric current to make magnetsTemporarily induced magnets are called electromagnets

    wrecking yard crane, particle accelerator, medical imaging machines

  • Iron filings near (a) a current-carrying coil and (b) a magnet act like tiny compass needles, showing the shape of their fields.

  • impossible to separate north and south magnetic poles

    magnetic monopoles, are not observed

    No magnetic monopoles

  • Space surrounding a mass has gravitational field Space surrounding a charge body has electrical field

    Magnetic field is the alteration of the motion of a charge

    A charged body has both electric field and magnetic fieldGreater the speed of charged body, grater the magnitude of surrounding magnetic field

    A magnetic filed is produced by electric charge in motion

  • Electric current is the source of all magnetismMagnetic field lines

  • Section Summary

    Magnetic poles always occur in pairs of north and southit is not possible to isolate north and south poles.All magnetism is created by electric current.Ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, are those that exhibit strong magnetic effects.The atoms in ferromagnetic materials act like small magnets (due to currents within the atoms) and can be aligned, usually in millimeter-sized regions called domains.Domains can grow and align on a larger scale, producing permanent magnets. Such a material is magnetized, or induced to be magnetic.Above a materials Curie temperature, thermal agitation destroys the alignment of atoms, and ferromagnetism disappears.Electromagnets employ electric currents to make magnetic fields, often aided by induced fields in ferromagnetic materials.