magical architecture photography manipulation - architectural

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2 PREFACE
This pamphlet is an exposé of the magical tricks architects use to create representations and reproductions of their design work. The focus will be placed on photography and especially its digital manipulation in the context of architecture.
The magic pamphlet is divided into two sections, each framed by a VSHFLºFWHFKQLTXHXVHGE\DUFKLWHFWVLQWUDQVODWLQJRUUHSUHVHQWLQJWKHLU ZRUNV6HFWLRQVDUHIXUWKHUEURNHQGRZQLQWR(HFW+LVWRU\&RQWHPSRUDU\ &DVH6WXG\$SSDUDWXV5HTXLUHG0HWKRGDQG3UHVHQWDWLRQ
$OWKRXJKWKHVHWULFNVDUHQRWXQNQRZQDQGDUHXVHGH[WHQVLYHO\E\DU- chitects, there is an issue of secrecy when revealing information to the SXEOLFDVZLWKDOOPDJLFWULFNV+RZHYHUDVWKH(QJOLVKPDJLFLDQ'DYLG 'HYDQWZURWHLQ “exposing tricks or illusions — providing they are not someone else’s new invention — is good for the profession. It stim-
ulates public interest in magic and forces magicians to seek new tricks
rather than to stagnate with some that are centuries old. The Magic Circle
seems to think that it is the mechanics of a trick that are the secrets of
its success. In my view, it is only the artistry of the performer that can
make it magic.” 1
0D\WKHLQIRUPDWLRQKHUHLQFRQWDLQHGKHOS\RXWRFRQYLQFH\RXUFOL- ents and overwhelm your harshest critics.2
ZIFENG WEI
HTS Diploma: Conjuring Consent - Secular Magic and the
Politics of Power
2012
INTRODUCTION
0DJLFFRXOGEHGHVFULEHGDVDSHUIRUPDQFH®DULV>[email protected] WUDQVIRUPDWLRQZKRVHHHFWVDUHHYLGHQWEXWZKRVHRSHUDWLRQVDUHQRWDS- parent.” The essay will focus particularly on secular magic, a term coined E\6LPRQ'XULQJDV®PDJLFWKDWPDNHVQRFODLPWREHLQFRQWDFWZLWKWKH supernatural — it’s not calling on hidden powers to act on the world.”4
3KRWRJUDSK\FDQWKXVEHVHHQDVDFDWHJRU\RIVHFXODUPDJLFLQLWV transformation of reality into an image and with the resulting photograph XQGHUVWRRGDVDSHUIRUPDQFH$OWKRXJKLWVPDJLFDOTXDOLW\KDVGLPLQLVKHG lately due to its popularization, it remains a tool that continually plays with illusions and deceptions, and deeply embedded in our culture.
0DJLFDQGLQWKLVFDVHSKRWRJUDSK\ZDONVDºQHOLQHEHWZHHQGHFHS- tion and illusion. The creation of illusions can open up minds to crea- tive and speculative ideas, provide entertainment and act as a tool for cultural construction. Its misuse can, however, easily turn into forms of GHFHSWLRQDQGEHXVHGLQDSOD\RISRZHU:KHWKHUWKHUHVXOWLQJHHFWLV consciously generated by a human agent or produced unintentionally by the mechanisms of a device, the photograph is a powerful entity and has al- ready become an integral part of our daily lives in communications, media, science, politics and architecture.
7KLVPDJLFSDPSKOHWSRVHVWKHTXHVWLRQRIKRZSKRWRJUDSK\DVDFDWH-
gory of secular magic, has penetrated deeply into architectural design and UHSUHVHQWDWLRQDQGLWVFRQVHTXHQWLQ»XHQFHRQDUFKLWHFWXUHDQGLQWKHGH- VLJQRIVSDFH3UHVHQWHGDVDQH[SRVpRIWZRGLJLWDOSKRWRJUDSKLFWULFNV WKHWH[WZLOOIRFXVRQ3KRWR0RQWDJHXVHGIRUSUHVHQWDWLRQVDQG+LJK'\- QDPLF5DQJHWHFKQLTXHV+'5XVHGWRGRFXPHQWºQLVKHGEXLOGLQJVWKURXJK examining their historical development and uses, I will show that the dig- itally manipulated images of today are merely a continuation of a tradi- WLRQHVWDEOLVKHGLQWKHPHGLXP±VHDUOLHVWGHFDGHVºQDOO\E\SURYLGLQJ detailed descriptions of the apparatuses and methodologies used to achieve these tricks, the pamphlet hopes to demystify current photographic prac- tice while discussing some of the ethical and moral dimensions of its use and/or misuse.
4
things, but because on each occa-
VLRQLWºOOVWKHVLJKWE\IRUFH and because in it nothing can be
refused or transformed.”
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This very simple principle of cutting and pasting two or more pho- tographs together to generate one image is used extensively by architects in the design phase to present ideas and concepts. Through the creation of an illusion, a vision is communicated to the audience by revealing the HVVHQFHRIWKHEXLOGLQJ:LWKWKHDGYHQWRIGLJLWDOPRGHOOLQJDQG&RPSXW- HU*HQHUDWHG,PDJHV&*,UHQGHUHGLPDJHVDUHRIWHQXVHGLQFRQMXQFWLRQ ZLWKSKRWRJUDSKLFPRQWDJHV7KHUDQJHRIGLHUHQWHHFWVWKDWDUHDFKLHY- DEOHXVLQJWKLVWHFKQLTXHLVYDVW6LQFHWKHIRFXVRIWKLVWH[WLVRQWKH varacity of photographs, we will address the manipulation and creation of photo-realistic montages.
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$VHDUO\DVWKHVRQO\DIHZGHFDGHVDIWHULWVLQYHQWLRQSKR- WRJUDSK\UHWRXFKLQJZDVDOUHDG\DQREVHVVLYHO\GHEDWHGVXEMHFWFRQGHPQHG and practiced widely at the same time.50DQLSXODWLRQRIWKHSKRWRJUDSK VHHPVWRKDYHDUULYHGVLPXOWDQHRXVO\ZLWKLWVLQYHQWLRQ/HYLQ&RUELQ +DQG\DFRPPHUFLDOSKRWRJUDSKHULQ:DVKLQJWRQ'&SURGXFHGPDQ\ºFWL- WLRXVPRQWDJHVRIºJXUHDQGEDFNJURXQG)LJIRUPDJD]LQHVDQGSXE- lications. The high demand for heroic images of soldiers who fought in WKH$PHULFDQ&LYLO:DUPHDQWDVWHDG\VRXUFHRILQFRPH7'HVSLWHWKHODFN of sophisticated retouching tools or digital technologies, the images he managed to produce were surprisingly convincing. The seamless blending of images as well as the careful positioning of various elements rendered be- OLHYDEOHVFHQDULRV)LJ
7KHWHFKQLTXHXVHGWREHDWHGLRXVWDVNRIFXWWLQJDQGSDVWLQJRIWKH QHJDWLYHVUHTXLULQJKLJKO\VNLOOHGODERXU1RZDGD\VGLJLWDOLPDJHVFDQ EHHDVLO\UHDVVHPEOHGZLWKDIHZFOLFNVRIWKHPRXVH+RZHYHULWUHPDLQV GHSHQGHQWRQWKHDUWLVWU\RIWKHSHUIRUPHUWR®PDNHLWPDJLF¯
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$QHZWHFKQRORJ\WKDWKDVEHFRPHDVWDQGDUGWRROLQDUFKLWHFWXUDO design and representation must be mentioned in relation to photo montages GLJLWDOPRGHOOLQJDQG&RPSXWHU*HQHUDWHG,PDJHV&*,5HQGHULQJWHFK- QLTXHVKDYHEHFRPHVRSKLVWLFDWHGHQRXJKWREOXUWKHERXQGDU\EHWZHHQDQ DUWLºFLDOO\JHQHUDWHGLPDJHDQGDSKRWRJUDSK
$SDUWLFXODUFDVHKDVFDXJKWP\DWWHQWLRQODWHO\WKH\HDU ROG,WDOLDQDUFKLWHFW$QWRQLQR&DUGLOORZDVDFFXVHGRIFKHDWLQJE\'HU Spiegel, a German news magazine.+HSUHVHQWHGEHDXWLIXOUHQGHULQJDQGPRQ- WDJHVDVUHDOFRQVWUXFWLRQV)LJPLVOHDGLQJUHDGHUVDERXWKLVDFWXDO DFKLHYHPHQWV+LVZRUNKDVDOVREHHQSXEOLVKHGLQDUFKLWHFWXUDOPDJD]LQHV VXFKDV:DOOSDSHULQZKLFKKHZDVFRQVLGHUHGDPRQJVWWKHWRS\RXQJ DUFKLWHFWVRI In a fast paced, image oriented world, architectural awards are often given out purely based on photographs. With rendering and VWLWFKLQJWHFKQLTXHVEHFRPLQJPRUHDEXQGDQWHDVLHUWRXVHDQGKDUGHUWR detect, along with magazines and publishers being heavily reliant on imag- HVZHPLJKWVHHPRUHDUFKLWHFWVOLNH&DUGLOORFURVVLQJWKHWKLQOLQHEH- tween creation of an illusion and a deception using photo montage.

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To generate images, you will need a digital camera, a computer with 3KRWRVKRS'PRGHOOLQJ UHQGHULQJVRIWZDUHVLQVWDOOHG'60D[5KLQR 9UD\
0(7+2'$1'35(6(17$7,21 To retain a level of photorealism when combining images, attention
PXVWEHSODFHGRQDFKLHYLQJ 6LPLODUSHUVSHFWLYHV 2. Seamless integration 6LPLODUOLJKWLQJ
7KHºUVWVWHSLVWRFROOHFWWKHLPDJHVXVLQJDGLJLWDOFDPHUDRURQ- line photo libraries, making sure that the images have matching perspec- tives. For the demonstration below, I will create a montage using a site SKRWR)LJDVN\)LJDQGDFRPSXWHUJHQHUDWHGLPDJH)LJ8VLQJ 3KRWRVKRS±VSHQVHOHFWLRQWRROWKHRXWOLQHVRIWKHVLWHSKRWRDQGUHQ- dered image are marked and the unnecessary elements removed. The images are then scaled to the right size and layered over one another in a photo- JUDSKLFPRQWDJH)LJ
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LQWHJUDWLRQEHWZHHQWKHYDULRXVLPDJHV7UHHVDUHH[WUHPHO\HHFWLYH at masking some of the defects and harsh edges between the images while creating a ‘green’ aesthetic appeal.
To provide the completed image with a coherent light and atmos- phere, DVHSLDFRORXUºOWHUDQGDQRYHUOD\RIUDLQLVDGGHG)LJ
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HHFWWKDWKDVQREDVLVLQ physical reality, but that -
in our hearts - ought to."
-Teller
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When photographing a high constrast scene, images are often washed RXWRUXQGHUH[SRVHGGXHWRWKHOLPLWDWLRQVRIWKHºOPQHJDWLYHRUWKHFDP- HUDVHQVRU7KHFDPHUDRQO\GLVWLOVDSUHVFULEHGTXDQWLW\RIOLJKWZLWK RQHH[SRVXUHZKLOHWKHKXPDQH\HDXWRPDWLFDOO\DGMXVWVWRYDU\LQJOLJKW conditions. The dilation of the pupils allows the brain to record more in- formation than any camera could. Thus, even when viewing a scene with no FKDQJHVLQOLJKWLQJWKHH\HVHQVLWLYHO\DGMXVWVDVWKHIRFXVVKLIWVIURP one area to another.
+LJK'\QDPLF5DQJH+'53KRWRJUDSK\LVDGLJLWDOO\LQWHOOLJHQW stitching of two or more varying exposures of the same scene to produce one image that is representative in both dark and bright areas. The human H\HFDQUHFRJQLVHFRQWUDVWUDWLRVRIXSWRZKLOHDGLJLWDOFDPHUD UHFRUGVRQO\DQGºOPQHJDWLYHVMXVWVRWKHXVHRI+'5EH- FRPHVDZD\WRFRPSHQVDWHIRUWKHLQDGHTXDF\RIWKHDSSDUDWXVHV
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),* FIG.2
&KDUOHV:\FNRDSKRWRFKHPLVWGHYHORSHGDWHFKQLTXHLQWKHV
IRUWKH86JRYHUQPHQWWRGRFXPHQWQXFOHDUH[SORVLRQWHVWV8VLQJWRQHUH- PDSSLQJºOPOD\HUVH[SRVHGDWYDULRXVOHYHOVZHUHFRPELQHGLQWRRQHVLQ- JOHLPDJHFUHDWLQJDJUHDWHUG\QDPLFUDQJH)LJ,QWKHFRP- SXWHUJUDSKLFVUHVHDUFKHU3DXO'HEHYHFGUHZXSRQWKHRUHWLFDOPDWKHPDWLFV WRGHYHORSDQLPDJLQJWHFKQRORJ\WKDWFRPELQHGVHYHUDOGLHUHQWO\H[SRVHG LPDJHVWKXVSURGXFLQJWKHºUVW+'5LPDJH
$OWKRXJK+'5LPDJHVKDYHDUHSXWDWLRQRIORRNLQJ°IDNH±RU°GUHDP\± it could be argued that they are actually more accurate at representing WKHUDQJHRILQWHQVLW\OHYHOVIRXQGLQUHDOOLIH,WVPDJLFDOHHFWFRXOG WKXVEHH[SODLQHGE\LWVUHODWLYHQHZQHVVLQWKHºHOGRISKRWRJUDSK\$V $UWKXU&&ODUNHQRWHV®$Q\VXLFLHQWO\DGYDQFHGWHFKQRORJ\LVLQGLVWLQ- guishable from magic.”

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7<,1WHJQHVWXH$UFKLWHFWVIURP1RUZD\KDYHEHHQHPSOR\LQJWKLVWHFK- QLTXHZKHQSKRWRJUDSKLQJDQGSUHVHQWLQJWKHLUEXLOWZRUN7KHFRPSDQ\±V humanitarian approach to architecture along with their visually stunning images have gained them a worldwide reputation, winning them the Europe- DQ3UL]HIRU$UFKLWHFWXUHLQDQGD0LHVYDQGHU5RKH$ZDUGLQ +RZHYHUPRVWRIWKHDZDUGLQJERGLHVKDYHQHYHUVHHQ7<,1±VSURMHFWVLQ SHUVRQGXHWRWKHLUUHPRWHORFDWLRQVDQGVRTXHVWLRQVRIYHUDFLW\DQGDX- thenticity emerge again.
+DYLQJZRUNHGZLWK7<,1,IRXQGRXWWKDWWKHLUXVHRIWKH+'5WHFK- QLTXHKDVRIWHQEHHQFULWLFLVHGIRUORRNLQJ®IDNH¯)LJ2WKHUVKDYH even asked when the buildings will be built - assuming that these imag- HVZHUHFRPSXWHUJHQHUDWHG+HUHZHVHHWKHUHYHUVDORI&DUGLOOR±VFDVH where the real has been magically transformed into an illusion.
$UHWKHFRQFHUQVRQO\GXHWRWKHWHFKQLTXHEHLQJUHODWLYHO\QHZDQG not yet mainstream, or are they really over the exaggerated versions of reality?

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3LFNDVFHQHZKHUHWKHUHDUHH[LVWLQJKLJKOHYHOVRIFRQWUDVW)DVWHQ the digital camera on a tripod and set the exposure to a correct level us- LQJLWVEXLOWLQOLJKWPHWHU7DNHDSKRWRJUDSK)LJ:LWKRXWFKDQJLQJ WKHSRVLWLRQRUIRFXVRIWKHFDPHUDDGMXVWWKHH[SRVXUHWROHYHOVEH- ORZWKHFRUUHFWOHYHODQGWDNHDQRWKHUSKRWRJUDSK)LJ)LQDOO\WDNHD WKLUGSKRWRJUDSKDQGRYHUH[SRVHLWE\OHYHOV)LJ
,PSRUWWKHWKUHHSKRWRJUDSKVWRWKHFRPSXWHUDQGRSHQXS3KRWRVKRS &OLFN)LOH!$XWRPDWH!0HUJHWR+'5 /RDGWKHLPDJHVDQGFOLFN2. 6HOHFWELWFKDQQHO &OLFN,PDJH!0RGH!ELWFKDQQHO $GMXVWWKHWRQHPDSSLQJVHWWLQJVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHGHVLUHGORRN
'XHWRWKHULFKWH[WXUHRIWKHPDWHULDOVLQWKHVFHQHWKHºQDOLPDJH becomes highly detailed and will appear slightly unreal, if not slightly HHULH)LJ ),*
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CONCLUSION
In his celebrated mediation on photography Camera Lucida5RODQG %DUWKHVDUJXHVWKDWWKHSKRWRJUDSKLVGHFHSWLYHEHFDXVHLWV®SRZHURIDX- thentication exceeds the power of representation”. The photograph claims WREHDQREMHFWLYHUHVXOWRIDPDJLFDOSKHQRPHQRQRIQDWXUH\HWFDUULHV potentially invented and structured meanings. We easily assume that it ®GRHVQRWLQYHQWLWLVDXWKHQWLFDWLRQLWVHOI¯DQGWKDW®WKHDUWLºFHVLW SHUPLWVDUHQRWSUREDWLYHWKH\DUHRQWKHFRQWUDU\WULFNSLFWXUHV¯22 Through the examples shown in this pamphlet, we begin to notice a blurring boundary and uncertainty betweeen ‘tricked’ and ‘untricked’ photographs.
'LVWLOOHGLQDSKRWRJUDSKDUFKLWHFWXUDOVSDFHPDWHULDOLW\DQGVFDOH are collapsed, altered, transformed and forever preserved in an ideal- L]HGVWDWH+RZHYHUEXLOGLQJVDUHVXEMHFWWRDFRQVWDQWPRUSKRORJ\LQ the three-dimensional world, molded by the weather and by the activities RIWKHLURFFXSDQWV7KHVHYDULDWLRQVDUHGLLFXOWLIQRWLPSRVVLEOHWR FRQYH\WKURXJKDQLPDJHVWLOO<HWDUFKLWHFWXUDOHGXFDWLRQDQGSURGXFWLRQ remains highly dependent on the consumption and study of such potentially manipulated images which mediate between the imagined and the real.
With the advent of digital tools, it is becoming easier to manipulate DQGKDUGHUWRGHWHFW»DZVLQ°WULFNHG±SKRWRJUDSKV$VDUHVXOWTXHVWLRQV RIDXWKHQWLFLW\DQGWKHLQFUHDVLQJGLLFXOW\WRGLVWLQJXLVKUHDOLW\IURP illusion are problematic in architectural representation. The magic of photographic manipulation is thus more and more often deployed for ideo- ORJLFDORUSHUVRQDOHQGVDVFDQEHIRXQGLQWKHZRUNRI$QWRQLR&DUGLOOR who uses rendered images to sell himself as an architect, and the stylised LPDJHVWKDW7<,1WHJQHVWXHXVHWRKHOSDGYHUWLVHWKHLUKXPDQLWDULDQFDXV- HV3KRWRJUDSK\±VLQ»XHQWLDOSRZHUVDUHXQGHQLDEOHVRLWPLJKWEHEHVWLI we steer our focus towards its constructive ability to capture, motivate and imagine, while always being aware of its deceptive powers.
%\DQDO\VLQJSKRWRJUDSKLFPDQLSXODWLRQWKURXJKWKHODQJXDJHRIVHF- XODUPDJLFZHFDQEHJLQWRFKDUDFWHULVHWKHSRVVLEOHGHºFLHQFLHVVKRUW- FRPLQJDQGGUDZEDFNVLQRXURYHUUHOLDQFHXSRQLWVWHFKQLTXHVEXWDOVR realise its great potential as an imaginative tool for cultural and archi- tectural construction.
22
REFERENCES
(GZLQ$'DZHV®5XOH¯&DELQHW0DJD]LQH,VVXH0DJLF6XPPHUKWWSFDEL- QHWPDJD]LQHRUJLVVXHVGDZHVSKSDFFHVVHG1RYHPEHU
2. /DXULH,UHODQG,UHODQG±V1HZ&DUGDQG&RLQ0DQLSXODWLRQ&KLFDJR7KH,UHODQG0DJLF &R/D\RXWFRYHUGHVLJQDQGLQWURGXFWRU\SKUDVHVZHUHLQVSLUHGE\WKLVPDJLF pamphlet.
-RKQ3RWWVDQG(GZDUG6FKHHU7HFKQRORJLHVRI0DJLF'RUVHW3RZHU3XEOLFDWLRQV xi.
4. 6LQD1DMDºDQG6LPRQ'XULQJ®0RGHUQ(QFKDQWPHQWV$Q,QWHUYLHZZLWK6LPRQ'XULQJ¯&DE- LQHW0DJD]LQH,VVXH0DJLF6XPPHUKWWSZZZFDELQHWPDJD]LQHRUJLVVXHV QDMDºSKSDFFHVVHG1RYHPEHU
5. 0LD)LQHPDQ)DNLQJ,W1HZ<RUN7KH0HWURSROLWDQ0XVHXPRI$UW Ibid. 7. Ibid. /XLJL3UHVWLQHQ]D3XJOLVL®3RVWFDUGIURP,WDO\$UFKLWHFW)DFHV,PDJHU\6FDQGDO¯
)UDPH:HEKWWSZZZIUDPHZHEFRPQHZVSRVWFDUGIURPLWDO\DFFHVVHG2FWREHU
Ibid. -RQDWKDQ$OOHQ®'HFHSWLRQLVWVDW:DU¯&DELQHW0DJD]LQH,VVXH0DJLF6XPPHU
KWWSFDELQHWPDJD]LQHRUJLVVXHVDOOHQSKSDFFHVVHG1RYHPEHU 6ZDSQLO0DWKXU®3KRWRJUDSK\+'5LPDJLQJH[SODLQHG¯1'79*DGJHWVKWWS
JDGJHWVQGWYFRPFDPHUDVIHDWXUHVSKRWRJUDSK\KGULPDJLQJH[SODLQHGDFFHVVHG 'HFHPEHU
0LD)LQHPDQ)DNLQJ,W1HZ<RUN7KH0HWURSROLWDQ0XVHXPRI$UW Ibid. 6ZDSQLO0DWKXU®3KRWRJUDSK\+'5LPDJLQJH[SODLQHG¯1'79*DGJHWVKWWS
JDGJHWVQGWYFRPFDPHUDVIHDWXUHVSKRWRJUDSK\KGULPDJLQJH[SODLQHGDFFHVVHG 'HFHPEHU
Ibid. Ibid. $UWKXU&&ODUNH3URºOHVRI7KH)XWXUH1HZ<RUN:DUQHU%RRNV,QF -RKQ+LOO®(XURSHDQ3UL]HIRU$UFKLWHFWXUH$ZDUGHGWR7<,17HJQHVWXH¯:RUOG$UFKL-
WHFWVKWWSZZZZRUOGDUFKLWHFWVFRPHQSDJHVHXSUL]HW\LQWHJQHVWXHDF- FHVVHG1RYHPEHU
0LD)LQHPDQ)DNLQJ,W1HZ<RUN7KH0HWURSROLWDQ0XVHXPRI$UW 5RODQG%DUWKHV&DPHUD/XFLGD1HZ<RUN)DUUDU6WUDXV *LURX[ 5RODQG%DUWKHV&DPHUD/XFLGD1HZ<RUN)DUUDU6WUDXV *LURX[ 22. 5RODQG%DUWKHV&DPHUD/XFLGD1HZ<RUN)DUUDU6WUDXV *LURX[
PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS
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