Mae 331 Lecture 3

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<ul><li><p> Greek mythology: Daedalus and Icarus! Attempt to escape from Crete!</p><p> 863 BC: Bladud (King Lears father)! 9th king of England ! First tower-jumper! Wings of feathers! Died of a broken neck!</p><p>Aviation History: Mythology to 1990</p><p>Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics, MAE 331, 2012"</p><p>Copyright 2012 by Robert Stengel. All rights reserved. For educational use only.!!</p><p>!</p><p>Antiquity</p><p>Experimentalists" Henri Pitot: Pitot tube (1732)!</p><p> Benjamin Robins: Whirling arm "wind tunnel (1742)!</p><p> Sketches "modern" airplane configuration (1799)!</p><p> Hand-launched glider (1804)! Papers on applied </p><p>aerodynamics (1809-1810)! Triplane glider carrying 10-yr-</p><p>old boy (1849)! Monoplane glider carrying </p><p>coachman (1853)! Cayley's coachman had a steering </p><p>oar with cruciform blades! Modern reconstruction (right)!</p><p>Sir George Cayley!</p><p>Visionaries and Theorists!</p><p> 1831: Thomas Walker! Various glider concepts! Tandem-wing design influenced Langley!</p><p> 1843: William Henson &amp; John Stringfellow ! Aerial steam carriage concept! Vision of commercial air transportation (with </p><p>Marriott and Columbine, The Aerial Transit Company)!</p><p> 1860-1900: Theoretical aerodynamic contributions!</p><p> Helmholtz! Kirchhoff! Lord Rayleigh! Reynolds! Lanchester, and others!</p></li><li><p>19th Century Flyers" 1868: Jean Marie Le Bris!</p><p> Artificial Albatross glides a short distance! 1891-96: Hang-glider flights!</p><p> Otto Lilienthal! Chanute, Pilcher, ...!</p><p> 1890: Clement Ader! Steam-powered Eole hops!</p><p> 1894: Sir Hiram Maxim! Steam-powered biplane hops! Vertical gyro/servo control of the </p><p>elevator!</p><p> 1884: Alexander Mozhaisky's steam-powered manned airplane!</p><p> brief hop off the ground! flat-plate wings!</p><p> 1874: Felix du Temple's hot-air engine manned monoplane!</p><p> Flies down a ramp!Early 20th Century</p><p>Samuel Pierpoint Langley"</p><p> Astronomer supported by Smithsonian Institution! Whirling-arm experiments! 1896: Langley's steam-powered Aerodrome model </p><p>flies 3/4 mile! 1903: Manned aircraft flight ends in failure!</p><p>The Wright Brothers"</p><p> Wilbur and Orville were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, OH!</p><p> Self-taught, empirical approach to flight! Wind-tunnel, kite, and glider experiments!</p><p> 1903: Powered, manned aircraft flight ends in success!</p></li><li><p>Wright Brothers Technical Contributions"</p><p> Recognized importance of balance and steering! Bank to turn preferable to </p><p>skid turn! Roll control induced yaw! Too much stability!</p><p> hinders control! increases response to gusts!</p><p> Wings can stall! Experimental gliders!</p><p> Wing warp controlled roll! Foreplanes controlled pitch!</p><p> 2nd glider! Vertical tail ! Coupled to the wing warp to </p><p>suppress adverse yaw!</p><p>After Kitty Hawk! 1906: 2nd successful aviator: Alberto </p><p>Santos-Dumont, standing!! High dihedral, forward control surface!</p><p> Wrights secretive about results until 1908; few further technical contributions!</p><p> 1908: Glenn Curtiss et al incorporate ailerons!</p><p> Wright brothers sue for infringement of 1906 US patent (and win)! 1909: Louis Bleriot's flight </p><p>across the English Channel!</p><p>Glenn Curtiss" 1908: Glenn Curtiss becomes dominant US aviation inventor! 1914: Langleys Aerodrome finally flies!</p><p> Curtiss et al modify and fly Langley Aerodrome! Unsuccessful effort to discredit Wright patent! Alexander Graham Bells support!</p><p>Stability vs. Control OR </p><p>Stability and Control?! Prior to 1903, it was thought that an airplane </p><p>should hold its course alone! Pilot could steer by deflecting the rudder !</p><p> This suggested:! Aft-mounted tail! Wing dihedral or high wing! Proper center-of-mass location!</p></li><li><p>Early Aircraft Control" Lillienthal shifted center of mass in </p><p>hang gliders! Langley's plane had movable </p><p>cruciform tail!</p><p> Wright brothers used wing warping and movable rudder and elevator surfaces!</p><p> Glenn Curtiss invented aileron surfaces!</p><p>Pilot Inputs to Control: the Wright Approach" 1903 Wright Flyer!</p><p> Prone pilot ! Stick for pitch control! Hip cradle for wing-warping roll </p><p>control! Aileron-rudder interconnect (ARI)!</p><p>things-work/1903-flyer.html! 1905 Wright Flyer !</p><p> Upright pilot ! Left lever for pitch! Right lever for roll and yaw with ARI! Right lever later modified to separate </p><p>roll (left-right) and yaw (fore-aft) control) w/o ARI!</p><p> Feet not used for control!</p><p>air1905.html!</p><p>Control Linkages: the Bleriot Approach"</p><p> Louis Bleriot introduced:! Rudder bar controlled by feet! Center stick for pitch and roll control!</p><p>Bleriot XI!</p><p>!!</p><p>Aviation in The Great War" 1914-18: World War I changes the </p><p>complexion of flying! Reconnaissance! Air superiority (dog fights) ! Bombing! Personal transport!</p><p> Wrights US monopoly broken by licensing for war effort!</p><p> Aircraft Design! Biplanes, a few mono- and </p><p>triplanes! Design for practical functions! Multiple engines, larger aircraft! Aft tails! Increased maneuverability, </p><p>speed, g-loads, altitude! Improved piston engines! Tractor propellers!</p><p>SPAD S.VII!</p><p>World War I fighter replicas in flight!!</p></li><li><p>Maneuvering World War I Aircraft" Maneuverable aircraft with </p><p>idiosyncrasies! Rotary engine! Small tail surfaces! Reliability issues!</p><p> Maneuvering to stalls and spins! Snap roll: rudder and elevator! Barrel roll : aileron ! Cross-control (e.g., right rudder, left </p><p>stick)! glide path control during landing ! good view of landing point!</p><p> Unintended snap rolls led to spins and accidents during takeoff or landing!</p><p>!!</p><p>Sopwith Camel"</p><p> Rotary engine induced gyroscopic coupling! Highly maneuverable! Aft fuel tank; when full, center of mass was too far aft </p><p>for stability! Vertical tail too small, spin recovery not automatic </p><p>with centering of controls!!</p><p>S.E.-5 vs. Fokker D.VII" RAF S.E.-5: theoretical approach to design!</p><p> Best WWI design from the Royal Aircraft Factory!</p><p> Stationary engine! High dihedral! Stable spiral mode! High control forces! Poor maneuverability! Relatively safe and effective!</p><p> Fokker D.VII: empirical approach to design!</p><p> Horn balances to reduce control forces! Stationary engine! Neutral-to-negative stability! Good maneuverability! Relatively dangerous!</p><p>The Correct Answer: Stability AND Control"</p><p> Need for better understanding of Flying (or Handling) Qualities ! Stability and controllability characteristics as perceived </p><p>by the pilot! Desired attributes: Stability of the S.E.-5 and </p><p>controllability of the D.VII!</p><p>!</p></li><li><p>Between the Wars </p><p>Aviation Between the Wars" 1918-38: !</p><p> Birth of airlines! Trophy races </p><p>!</p><p> Aviation firsts (Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic, 1927);feature=related!</p><p> Flying boats ! Sport aviation!</p><p>Curtiss R3C-2! Gee-Bee R-1!</p><p>Ryan NYP!</p><p>!</p><p>Air Commerce Act of 1926" Airlines formed to carry mail and passengers: !</p><p> Northwest (1926)! Eastern (1927), bankruptcy! Pan Am (1927), bankruptcy! Boeing Air Transport (1927), became United (1931)! Delta (1928), consolidated with Northwest, 2010! American (1930)! TWA (1930), acquired by American! Continental (1934), consolidated with United, 2010!</p><p>Boeing 40!</p><p>Ford Tri-Motor! Lockheed Vega !</p><p>!</p><p>Commercial Aircraft of the 1930s! Streamlining, engine cowlings! Douglas DC-1, DC-2, DC-3!</p><p> Lockheed 14 Super Electra, Boeing 247, exterior and interior!</p></li><li><p>Seaplanes Became the First TransOceanic Air Transports!</p><p> PanAm led the way! 1st scheduled TransPacific flights(1935)! 1st scheduled TransAtlantic flights(1938)! 1st scheduled non-stop Trans-Atlantic flights (VS-44, 1939)!</p><p> Boeing B-314, Vought-Sikorsky VS-44, Shorts Solent! Superseded by more efficient landplanes (lighter, less drag)!</p><p>!</p><p>1930s Air Racers Presage Fighters of World War II"</p><p> Aircraft Design ! Transition to </p><p>monoplanes! Metal skins and </p><p>structure! Semi-monocoque design! Improved aerodynamics! Improved in-line, V, and </p><p>radial engines ! Increased </p><p>maneuverability, speed, altitude!</p><p> Seaplanes faster than landplanes (why?)!</p><p>Supermarine S.6B!</p><p>Hughes H-1 (replica)!</p><p>Macchi MC72!</p><p>V = 566 km/hr!</p><p>V = 709 km/hr!</p><p>V = 547 km/hr!</p><p>World War II</p><p>;feature=related!</p><p>Technology of World War II Aviation" 1938-45: Analytical and experimental </p><p>approach to design! Many configurations designed and </p><p>flight-tested ! Increased specialization; radar, </p><p>navigation, and communication! Approaching the "sonic barrier!</p><p> Aircraft Design! ! Large, powerful, high-flying aircraft! Turbocharged engines! Oxygen and Pressurization!</p><p>Spitfire!</p><p>P-51D!</p><p>B-17!!</p></li><li><p>Power Effects on Stability and Control! Gee Bee R1 Racer: an engine with </p><p>wings and almost no tail" During W.W.II, the size of fighters </p><p>remained about the same, but installed horsepower doubled (F4F vs. F8F)!</p><p> Use of flaps means high power at low speed, increasing relative significance of thrust effects"</p><p> Short-Takeoff-and-Landing (STOL) aircraft augment takeoff/landing lift in many ways, e.g.,"</p><p> Full-span flaps" Deflected thrust"</p><p>Grumman F8F!</p><p>Grumman F4F!</p><p>GB R1!</p><p>CTo ,CTV ,CTT ,CLT</p><p>World War II Carrier-Based Airplanes!</p><p> Takeoff without catapult, relatively low landing speed!</p><p> Tailhook and arresting gear! Carrier steams into wind! Design for storage (short tail length, </p><p>folding wings) affects stability and control!</p><p>Chance-Vought F4U Corsair!</p><p>Grumman TBF!</p><p>Douglas TBD!</p><p>F4U flight"!</p><p>SBD Dauntless Flight";feature=related!</p><p>F4U!</p><p>Carrier Crash Landings!!</p><p>Grumman TBF !</p><p>Multi-Engine Aircraft of World War II!</p><p> Large W.W.II aircraft had unpowered controls:! High foot-pedal force! Rudder stability problems </p><p>arising from balancing to reduce pedal force!</p><p> Severe engine-out problem for twin-engine aircraft!</p><p>Boeing B-17! Boeing B-29!Consolidated B-24!</p><p>Douglas A-26!</p><p>North American B-25!</p><p>Martin B-26!</p><p>WW II Military Flying Boats! Seaplanes proved useful during World War II!</p><p>Lockheed PBY Catalina!</p><p>Martin PBM Mariner !</p><p>Martin PB2M Mars!</p><p>Boeing XPBB Sea Ranger!</p><p>Saunders-Roe SR.36 Lerwick!Grumman JRF-1 Goose!</p></li><li><p>Birth of the Jet Airplane"</p><p>Bell P-59A (1942)!</p><p>Gloster Meteor (1943)!</p><p>Messerschitt Me 262 (1942)!</p><p>Heinkel He. 178 (1939)!</p><p>Gloster E/28/39 (1941)!Early Jet Aircraft</p><p>From Propellers to Jets!Douglas XB-43!</p><p>Douglas XB-42 Mixmaster!</p><p>Convair B-36!Convair YB-60!</p><p>Northrop YB-35! Northrop XB-49!</p><p>Jets at an Awkward Age! Performance of the first jet aircraft </p><p>outstripped stability and control technology! Lacked satisfactory actuators, </p><p>sensors, and control electronics! Transistor: 1947, integrated circuit: </p><p>1958! Dramatic dynamic variations over </p><p>larger flight envelope! Control mechanisms designed to </p><p>lighten pilot loads were subject to instability!</p><p> Reluctance of designers to embrace change, fearing decreased reliability, increased cost, and higher weight !</p><p>North American B-45!</p><p>Lockheed P-80!</p><p>Douglas F3D!</p><p>Convair XF-81!</p></li><li><p>From Straight to Swept Wings! Straight-wing models were redesigned with swept wings to </p><p>reduce compressibility effects on drag! Dramatic change in stability, control, and flying qualities! North American FJ-1 </p><p>and FJ-4 Fury! Republic F-84B Thunderbird </p><p>and F-84F Thunderstreak! Grumman F9F-2 Panther </p><p>and F9F-6 Cougar! Toward Supersonic Flight and Stealth</p><p>Fighter Jets of the 1950s! Emphasis on supersonic speed!</p><p>Republic F-105!</p><p>Lockheed F-104!</p><p>Convair F-102!</p><p>McDonnell F-101!North American F-100!</p><p>Fighter Jets of the 1960s! Emphasis on mission!</p><p>McDonnell F-4!Dassault Mirage F1!</p><p>Convair F-106!Grumman A-6!</p></li><li><p>Fighter Jets of the 1980s! Emphasis on performance!</p><p>Repbulic F-105!Lockheed-Martin F-117!</p><p>Panavia Tornado!</p><p>BAE/McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B!</p><p>Mig-31A!</p><p>Personal and Business Aircraft</p><p>Early Concepts for Safe Personal Aircraft! Low takeoff and landing speeds! Benign flying qualities! Stall/spin-proof designs! Ercoupe!</p><p> Limited control authority! Control wheel, ARI, no rudder pedals! Limited center-of-mass travel! Limited speed range! Wing leveling and lateral stability! Fixed, tricycle landing gear!</p><p>Curtiss Tanager!</p><p>Piper J-3 Cub!</p><p>Ercoupe!</p><p>Less-Safe Personal Airplanes! Mignet Flying Flea (Homebuilt, pivoting main wing, no ailerons, unrecoverable dive)! V-tail Beechcraft Bonanza Model 35 (10,000 built, 250 in-flight structural failures) ! American Yankee AA-1 (BD-1, hot, stalls and spins) ! Bede BD-5 (Home-built, unforgiving flying qualities)!</p></li><li><p>Propeller-Driven Personal Aircraft! Single reciprocating engine, mechanical controls, fixed or </p><p>retracting gear, high price! Cirrus SR-20/22 has a recovery parachute (used 13 times </p><p>through 2008, saved 24 lives; 2 parachute failures)!</p><p>Piper Malibu!</p><p>Cessna 172!</p><p>Cirrus SR20/22!Beech Bonanza A36!</p><p>Mooney M20!</p><p>Business Jets! Twin turbojet/fan engines!</p><p>Gulfstream II!</p><p>Cessna Citation I!</p><p>Learjet 24!</p><p>North American Sabreliner!</p><p>Commercial Transport Aircraft</p><p>Commercial Aircraft of the 1940s! Pre-WWII designs! Derivatives of military transport and </p><p>bomber aircraft of WWII! Convair 240 (&gt; C-131, T-29)! Douglas DC-4 (&gt; C-54)! Boeing Stratoliner 377 (from B-29, C-97)! Lockheed Constellation 749 (from C-69)!</p></li><li><p>Commercial Propeller-Driven Aircraft of the 1950s! Introduction of the turboprop engine! Douglas DC-6, DC-7, Lockheed Starliner 1649, Vickers Viscount, Bristol </p><p>Britannia, Lockheed Electra 188!</p><p>Commercial Jets of the 1950s! Low-bypass ratio turbojet </p><p>engines! deHavilland Comet (1954)!</p><p> 1st commercial jet transport! engines buried in wings!</p><p> Boeing 707 (1957)! derived from USAF KC-135! engines on pylons below wings! largest aircraft of its time!</p><p> Sud-Aviation Caravelle (1959)! 1st aircraft with twin aft-</p><p>mounted engines!</p><p>Small Commercial Jets of the 1960s! Preponderance of aft-mounted 2- </p><p>and 3-engine configurations (BAC 1-11, Douglas DC-9)!</p><p> Boeing 727 (1963)! 1st with 3 aft-mounted engines!</p><p> Hawker-Siddeley Trident (1964)! Boeing 737 (1967)!</p><p>Large Commercial Jets of the 1960s! Pylon-mounted 4-engine configurations </p><p>(Convair 880, DC-8, Stretched DC-8, Boeing 747)! DC-8 design was well-suited to a stretch </p><p>(fuselage plugs fore and aft of wing! B-707 was not!</p></li><li><p>Commercial Jets of the 1970s! High-bypass turbofan engines! Introduction of the 2/3-engine </p><p>jumbo jets! Lockheed L-1011! Douglas DC-10! Airbus A300!</p><p> Supersonic transports! BAC/SA Concorde (1972)! Tupolev Tu-144 (1977)!</p><p>Lockheed L-1011!</p><p>Douglas DC-10!</p><p>Airbus A300!</p><p>BAC/SA Concorde!</p><p>Tupolev Tu-144!</p><p>Commercial Jets of the 1990s! Derivatives of 1980s designs </p><p>(McDonnell-Douglas MD-11, Boeing 747-400, Airbus A330)!</p><p> First Boeing fly-by-wire design (B-777)! First 4-engine Airbus (A340)!</p><p>McDonnell-Douglas MD-11!</p><p>Boeing 747-400!</p><p>Airbus A330!</p><p>Boeing 777!</p><p>Boeing 247!</p><p>Airbus A340!</p><p>Daedalus and Icarus Revisited, 23 Ap...</p></li></ul>