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    Review Path Profling

    Site Selection

    Antenna Heights

    Reection Points

     Transmission Calculations

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    Path Profling Topographic Maps Longitude, Lattitude

    TM

    Map Scaling

    Contour Lines

    Magnetic !eclination

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    Site Selection Considerations in selecting site

    •Site Selection

    • Tower Selection

    • Power "#uipment

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    Reection Points Reection Points should &e avoided

     The' cause inter(erence, whether the'&e constructive or destructive

    Moving Reection Point

    Shielding Reection Point

    )inds o( Reection

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    Line o( Sight The line of sight is a straight line along which an

    o&server o&serves an o&+ect

     -t is an imaginar' line that stretches &etweeno&server.s e'e and the o&+ect that he is loo/ing at

     The simplest mode o( propagation o( radio waves isthe propagation along line o( sight paths

    Propagation will generall' &e said to &e in line o(sight when di0raction phenomena are negligi&le

    -n contrast with scattering pro&lems, the o&servedwave in light o( sight propagation is alwa's ami1ture o( the incident and scattered wave

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    2ave Propagation An electromagnetic wave is created &' a

    local distur&ance in the electric and

    magnetic felds $rom its origin, the wave will propagate

    outwards in all direction

    -( the medium in which it is propagating

    3air (or e1ample4 is the sameever'where, the wave will spread outuni(orml' in all directions

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    Suppose that we were given a tas/ o(per(orming radio planning (or a new networ/

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    -denti(' customer end sitelocations

     This is ver' important

    Microwave radio lin/s allow ver' littleinaccurac' o( the site coordinates&ecause the clearance o( the &eam iscritical

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    Plot the 5etwor/ !iagram and-nitial Mapwor/

    Microwave radio lin/s rel' on there&eing L6S &etween the two ends

    -( there is no L6S, the path will not wor/7 The path is &loc/ed etc

    $or long L6S path, repeaters should &eused

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    Path Profling Repeaters are ver' e1pensive

    Radio repeaters are o(ten &uilt &ased onthe anal'sis o( the path profle

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    Radio Repeaters

    Passive and Active

    Passive 7 5o power is re#uired, noregular road access, no e#uipmenthousing, environmental (riendl' and nomaintenance

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    -ncluded Angle2hen two lines meet at a common point

    the angle &etween them is called the

    included angle The two lines defne theangle So (or e1ample in the fgurea&ove we could re(er to the angle 8A9Cas the :included angle o( 9A and 9C:

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     2here;• ro< true earth radius3=>[email protected]

    miles

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    2here is thelongitude, is thelatitude and site @is lower than site

    D

     

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    What’s the azimuth?

    the angle &etween the pro+ected vector and are(erence vector on the re(erence plane is calledthe aEimuth

    • AEimuth is usuall' measuredin degrees 3F4The concept isused in navigation,

    astronom', engineering,mapping, mining and artiller'

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    -n land navigation, aEimuth is usuall'denoted alpha, and defned as a

    horiEontal angle measured cloc/wise(rom a north &ase line or meridianAEimuth has also &een more generall'defned as a horiEontal angle measured

    cloc/wise (rom an' f1ed re(erenceplane or easil' esta&lished &asedirection line

     

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    True north-based azimuths

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    Computing (or aEimuth2e are standing at latitude , longitude

    EeroG we want to fnd the aEimuth (rom

    our viewpoint to Point D at latitude ,longitude L 3positive eastward4 2e canget a (air appro1imation &' assumingthe "arth is a sphere, in which case the

    aEimuth is given &'

     

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    2hat is "levation The elevation is

    the vertical

    angular distance&etween a &od'and theo&server.s local

    horiEon or, alsocalled, theo&serverIs localplane

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