Logistics & Retail Information

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<ul><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 1/8</p><p>Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p>1. What do you understand by term logistics? Explain it with the evolution concept.</p><p>\ Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point ofdestination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logisticsinvolves the integration of information, transportation , inventory , warehousing , materialhandling , and packaging , and often security . Today the complexity of production logisticscan be modeled, analyzed, visualized and optimized by plant simulation software, but isconstantly changing. This can involve anything from consumer goods such as food, to IT</p><p>materials, to aerospace and defense equipment. rigins and definition</p><p>The term logistics comes from the Greek logos (), meaning "speech, reason, ratio, rationality,language, phrase", an more specifically from the Greek !or logistiki ( #$ %&amp;), meaning accountingan financial organi'ation citation needed *</p><p>Logistics is consi ere to ha+e originate in the military s nee to supply themsel+es !ith arms,ammunition an rations as they mo+e from their -ase to a for!ar position* .nancient Greek , /oman an 0y'antine empires , military officers !ith the title Logistikas !ere responsi-lefor financial an supply istri-ution matters citation needed *</p><p>The Oxford English Dictionary efines logistics as "the -ranch of military science relating to procuring,maintaining an transporting material , personnel an facilities*" 1o!e+er, the New Oxford American</p><p>Dictionary efines logistics as "the etaile coor ination of a comple2 operation in+ol+ing many people,facilities, or supplies" an the 32for 4ictionary online efines it as, "the etaile organi'ation animplementation of a comple2 operation5" 6 7nother ictionary efinition is "the time8relate positioning ofresources*" 7s such, logistics is commonly seen as a -ranch of engineering that creates "people systems"rather than "machine systems"* 9hen talking in terms of human resources management , logistics meansgi+ing inputs, i*e* "recruiting manpo!ers", !hich ultimately !ork for the final consumer or to eli+ery*</p><p> 7ccor ing to the :ouncil of Logistics ;anagement, logistics contains the integrate planning, control,reali'ation an monitoring of all internal an net!ork8!i e material8, part8 an pro uct flo! inclu ing thenecessary information flo! in in ustrial an tra ing companies along the complete +alue8a e chain(an pro uct life cycle) for the purpose of conforming to customer re</p></li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 2/8</p><p>Logistics is generally a cost centre ser+ice acti+ity, -ut pro+i es +alue +ia impro+e efficiency ancustomer satisfaction* .t can or e2ample, if !e !antto pro uce a system that is ?@A relia-le (or impro+e a system to achie+e ?@A relia-ility), a logisticsengineer un erstan s that total system relia-ility can -e no greater than the least relia-le su-system orcomponent* Therefore our logistics engineer must consi er the relia-ility of all su-components orsu-systems an mo ify system esign accor ingly* .f a su-system is only @BA relia-le, one canconcentrate on impro+ing the relia-ility of that su-system, esign in multiple su-systems in parallel (@ inthis case !oul achie+e appro2imately ?CA relia-ility of that su-system), purchase an store sparesu-systems for rapi change out, esta-lish repair capa-ility that !oul get a faile su-system -ack inoperation in the re), mean time to failure (;TT&gt;), mean time to repair (;TT/), failure mo e aneffects analysis (&gt;;D7), statistical istri-utions , </p></li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 3/8</p><p>areas as customer ser+ice, in+entory control, materials han ling, protecti+e packaging, or erprocession, transportation, !arehouse site selection, an !arehousing* Ehysical istri-ution is partof a larger process calle " istri-ution," !hich inclu es !holesale an retail marketing, as !ell thephysical mo+ement of pro ucts*</p><p>Ehysical istri-ution acti+ities ha+e recently recei+e increasing attention from -usiness managers,inclu ing small -usiness o!ners* This is ue in large part to the fact that these functions oftenrepresent almost half of the total marketing costs of a pro uct* .n fact, research stu ies in icate thatphysical istri-ution costs nationally amount to appro2imately FB percent of the country s total grossnational pro uct (G E)* These fin ings ha+e le many small -usinesses to e2pan their cost8cuttingefforts -eyon their historical focus on pro uction to encompass physical istri-ution acti+ities* Theimportance of physical istri-ution is also -ase on its rele+ance to customer satisfaction* 0y storinggoo s in con+enient locations for shipment to !holesalers an retailers, an -y creating fast, relia-lemeans of mo+ing the goo s, small -usiness o!ners can help assure continue success in a rapi lychanging, competiti+e glo-al market*</p><p>! "#"T$% !&amp;&amp;' !()Ehysical istri-ution can -e +ie!e as a system of components linke together for the efficientmo+ement of pro ucts* Hmall -usiness o!ners can ask the follo!ing </p></li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 4/8</p><p>technologically a +ance -usiness en+ironment, such systems often in+ol+e the use of speciali'esoft!are that allo!s the o!ner to track in+entory !hile simultaneously analy'ing all the routes antransportation mo es a+aila-le to etermine the fastest, most cost8effecti+e !ay to eli+ery goo s ontime*</p><p>T'! "&amp; 'T!TIThe Nnite Htates transportation system has long -een a go+ernment8regulate in ustry, much likeits telephone an electrical utilities* 0ut in 6?CC the eregulation of transportation -egan !ith theremo+al of fe eral regulations for cargo air carriers not engage in passenger transportation* The</p><p>eregulation mo+ement has since e2pan e in !ays that ha+e fun amentally altere thetransportation lan scape for small -usiness o!ners, large conglomerates an , ultimately, theconsumer*</p><p>". Explain supply chain management ! assortment.</p><p> "upply chain management -"(% is the management of a net!ork ofinterconnecte -usinesses in+ol+e in the ultimate pro+ision of pro uct an ser+ice packages re</p></li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 5/8</p><p>Glo-al supply chain forum 8 supply chain management is the integration of key -usinessprocesses across the supply chain for the purpose of creating +alue for customers an stakehol ers(Lam-ert, FBBM)* @</p><p> 7ccor ing to the :ouncil of Hupply :hain ;anagement Erofessionals (:H:;E), supply chain</p><p>management encompasses the planning an management of all acti+ities in+ol+ein sourcing ,procurement , con+ersion, an logistics management * .t also inclu es the crucialcomponents of coor ination an colla-oration !ith channel partners , !hich can-e suppliers , interme iaries , thir 8party ser+ice pro+i ers, an customers * .n essence, supply chainmanagement integrates supply an eman management !ithin an across companies* ;orerecently, the loosely couple , self8organi'ing net!ork of -usinesses that cooperate to pro+i e pro uctan ser+ice offerings has -een calle the Extended Enterprise *</p><p> 7 supply chain, as oppose to supply chain management, is a set of organi'ations irectly linke -y oneor more of the upstream an o!nstream flo!s of pro ucts, ser+ices, finances, an information from asource to a customer* ;anaging a supply chain is supply chain management (;ent'er et al. , FBB6)* Q</p><p>Hupply chain management soft!are inclu es tools or mo ules use to e2ecute supply chain transactions,manage supplier relationships an control associate -usiness processes*</p><p>Hupply chain e+ent management (a--re+iate as H:D;) is a consi eration of all possi-le e+ents anfactors that can isrupt a supply chain* 9ith H:D; possi-le scenarios can -e create an solutions</p><p>e+ise *</p><p>#. Write $otes %&amp;ny 'wo( )</p><p>a( *upply chain competitiveness</p><p> (ompetitiveness is a comparati+e concept of the a-ility an performance of a firm, su-8sector orcountry to sell an supply goo s an =or ser+ices in a gi+en market * 7lthough !i ely usein economics an -usiness management , the usefulness of the concept, particularly in the conte2t ofnational competiti+eness, is +igorously ispute -y economists, such as Eaul Rrugman * 6</p><p>The term may also -e applie to markets, !here it is use to refer to the e2tent to !hich the marketstructure may -e regar e as perfectly competiti+e * This usage has nothing to o !ith the e2tent to !hichin i+i ual firms are "competiti+e *</p><p>/irm competitiveness</p><p>Dmpirical o-ser+ation confirms that resources (capital, la-or, technology) an talent ten to concentrategeographically (Dasterly an Le+ine FBBF)* This result reflects the fact that firms are em-e e in inter8firm relationships !ith net!orks of suppliers, -uyers an e+en competitors that help them to gaincompetiti+e a +antages in the sale of its pro ucts an ser+ices* 9hile arms8length market relationships</p><p>o pro+i e these -enefits, at times there are e2ternalities that arise from linkages among firms in ageographic area or in a specific in ustry (te2tiles, leather goo s, silicon chips) that cannot -e capture or</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management#cite_note-4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Supply_Chain_Management_Professionalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sourcinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procurementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procurementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistics_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistics_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistics_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_partnerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suppliershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediarieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediarieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_and_demandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_and_demandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Enterprisehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Enterprisehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management#cite_note-Mentzer.2C_J.T_2001_pp._1-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management_softwarehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Krugmanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Krugmanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competitiveness#cite_note-foreignaffairs.org-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_structurehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_structurehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfectly_competitivehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfectly_competitivehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management#cite_note-4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Supply_Chain_Management_Professionalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sourcinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procurementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistics_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_partnerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suppliershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediarieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_and_demandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Enterprisehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management#cite_note-Mentzer.2C_J.T_2001_pp._1-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management_softwarehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_managementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Krugmanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competitiveness#cite_note-foreignaffairs.org-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_structurehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_structurehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfectly_competitive</li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 6/8</p><p>fostere -y markets alone* The process of Sclusteri'ation, the creation of S+alue chains, or Sin ustrialistricts are mo els that highlight the a +antages of net!orks*</p><p> b( +is,s -ower ! eadership in *upply chain /anagement</p><p> L e a d e r </p><p>Uou must ha+e an honest un erstan ing of !ho you are, !hat you kno!, an !hat you can o* 7lso, note that it is thefollo!ers, not the lea er or someone else !ho etermines if the lea er is successful* .f they o not trust or lackconfi ence in their lea er, then they !ill -e uninspire * To -e successful you ha+e to con+ince your follo!ers, notyourself or your superiors, that you are !orthy of -eing follo!e *</p><p> F o l l o w e r s</p><p>4ifferent people reor e2ample, a ne! hire reor e2ample, you may nee toconfront an employee for inappropriate -eha+ior, -ut if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too !eak,then the results may pro+e ineffecti+e*</p><p> 7lso note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a lea er s action than his or her traits* This is -ecause!hile traits may ha+e an impressi+e sta-ility o+er a perio of time, they ha+e little consistency across situations(;ischel, 6?KM)* This is !hy a num-er of lea ership scholars think the rocess !heory of Leadership is a moreaccurate than the !rait !heory of Leadership *</p><p>Jarious forces !ill affect these four factors* D2amples of forces are your relationship !ith your seniors, the skill ofyour follo!ers, the informal lea ers !ithin your organi'ation, an ho! your organi'ation is organi'e</p><p>c( -ower clarity in *upply chain management.</p>http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.htmlhttp://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.htmlhttp://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html</li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 7/8</p><p> For a man who sells the chip "brains" that power millions of TVs, cameras</p><p>and other gadgets, Levy Gerzberg found himself surprisingly unplugged last</p><p>fall. n !ust a few short wee s, business virtually stopped.</p><p>0e still marvels at the speed of the collapse. thin, about it today and as, Why did ithappen so fast? says /r. 4er5berg 6E7 of chip designer 8oran 6orp.</p><p>'he reason is now starting to become clear. 'he world s complex 9ust in time</p><p>manufacturing supply chains are ma,ing it increasingly tough for 8oran and any other</p><p>single lin, in the chain to ,now what s going on 9ust a few lin,s away. *ometimes 8oran</p><p>itself doesn t even ,now how its own chips are used: 7ne batch it thought was destined</p><p>for D;D players instead turned up in digital picture frames.</p><p>'he recession has exposed a harsh side effect of the supply)chain system. </p></li><li><p>8/11/2019 Logistics &amp; Retail Information</p><p> 8/8</p></li></ul>