log book week 6- 10

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Week 6

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Page 1: Log book Week 6- 10

Week 6

Page 2: Log book Week 6- 10

Knowledge Maps

Page 3: Log book Week 6- 10

Site 1- Foundation, basement level and fencingare finished. The main structural system ofthe building in this current stage is theconcrete columns and concrete retainingwalls in the foundation.

- Different types of concrete blocks (asshown in the picture) are used for themansonry to shape the desired wall.- Reinforcing steel bars are placed betweenthe holes of the concrete blocks andconcrete mortar is poured into the holes. Types of concrete blocks (Concrete block

producing elements, 1991, retrieved fromhttp://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0hdl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-0-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-

800&cl=CL3.21&d=HASH01cd8e24192ac8a6f611d03f.14&gt=2).

Page 4: Log book Week 6- 10

Site 2- Some demolishing such as diggingup the old stamps are still occuringat this stage.- Some structural systems such ascolumns which base on the stampsare dismentled for the new ones.- Steel columns are to be used onsecond floor.- For floor systems, timbers areused as joists and beams. Thetimbers are protected from touchingwith the ground surface by thestamps.- Concrete stamps are used for longterm durability.- LVL is used for bearers beacauseit is relatively stronge and durable.

Page 5: Log book Week 6- 10

Glossary

Rafter- beams which is used to cover roofsPurlin- horizontal structure that transfer loads to the rafters.Cantilever- a part of joists of beam which overhung at the edge.Portal frame- a frame which roof structure and columns are combined and is mostlyused in factory buildings.Eave- the bottom edge of a roofAlloy- the mixture of two or more elements such as mental alloys.Soffit- a ceiling style member which covers beams in roof systemsTop chord- The upper member of a truss.Ceiling Joist- joist which is for ceiling.

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Week 7

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Knowledge Maps

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Glossary

Drip- the edge of a roof where water is dripped off.Sill- the slope which is at the exterior of a window preventing water to come inside.Vapour barrier- a plastic membrane which is usually put between brick veneer walls ortwo walls to prevent mositure to come inside.Gutter- a structure which carries water away from the building.Parapet- a wall which extends higher than the roof.Down pipe- pipe which carries rain water from gutters to the ground.Flashing- thin, impermeable material placed between verticle walls and mansonry wallsfor preventing water and moisture.Insulation- a material which prevent heat flow into or ourside of the building.Sealant- used for filling gaps in openings such as windows

Page 10: Log book Week 6- 10

Week 8

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KnowledgeMap

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Polycarbonatewall lining

PFC

Face brickwork

Glossary

Window Sash- window which has many panels across the glass. The panels form framesand they can be movedDeflection- the bending of a meterial due to a forceMoment of Inertia- the moment that required an object to move from the state ofresting.Door Furniture- door handlesShear Force- the force which force one part of a body to slide another part of thebody.

Page 14: Log book Week 6- 10

Week 9

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Knowledge Map

Page 16: Log book Week 6- 10

Columns in the basement is precastconcrete. The columns are connected tothe slab in this way.

Columns in the ground floor and level 1is steel columns. Steel columns in groundfloor is thicker and heavier than those oflevel 1 as it has to carry more loads.

At the base of the steel columns, there isa large surface footing which spreadloads from the column to the columnunderneath. If the footing is not used,the concrete column can happen like inthis picture.

Soldier piles are put in thefoundation of the building.More piles are in moredeeper area . Tiebacks areput in those piles. Theretaining walls are concretesprayed wall and finishes thewall.

Page 17: Log book Week 6- 10

The building uses a type of slab which has no beams. Instead of beams, flat slab isused.

A reinforced concrete slab directly supported bycolumns is called flat slab ("Flat slab", 2012,retrieved fromhttp://theconstructor.org/structural-engg/flat-slab/1455/ ).

The slab is reinforced by tensile reinforcement and the slab's thickness should bebetween 125 to 305mm and the span should be 3.6 to 7m (Ching, 2008, p. 4.07). Theslab itself acts as beams and transfer load between the columns.

benefits- flexible in room layoutbecause walls of the rooms donot have to be built underbeams.- Saving in building height. Thisalso allows spaces for services.- Shorter construction time as noformwork for beams is needed tobe built. Flat plate is used as theform work and reduce theconstruction time.("Flat slab", 2012, retrieved fromhttp://theconstructor.org/structural-engg/flat-slab/1455/ )

comparison of the two types of slab. ("Flatslab", 2012, retrieved fromhttp://theconstructor.org/structural-engg/flat-slab/1455/)

The structural system of the buildingconsists of concrete columns, slabs, steelcolumns and the elevator walls.Columns become smaller and smaller as theamount of load needs to carry is lesser andlesser.

Page 18: Log book Week 6- 10

Columns-Precast concrete columns are used inthe basement. The moisture level inthe basement can be high in someconditions. Thus, steel columns can berusted easily in the basement.

Steel columns are used the upperfloors. Steel columns are made infactory and easy to install. In addition,steel columns can give the samestrength as concrete ones although theyhave lesser diameter.

System scaffolding is the combination oftimber and steel. Steel materials which heightcan be adjusted is used to adjust the heightof the scaffolding which can be seen in thepicture. Above the scaffolding, there is flatplate which is thick and modified for workersto be safe to walk on it.

In level 2, two steel columns are wieldedtogether for some columns which need tocarry more load. Two seperate columns areeasier to carry than a big thick steel column.Precast concrete walls in the basement andthe elevator walls are connected by steelplates which connects the two concrete wallsas shown in the picture.

Walls -Timber stud walls are to be installed forroom formation. Timber is readilyavailable in Australia, light and time andenergy efficient.

For elevator, precast concrete is used.This is more time efficient and get betterconcrete than situ concrete wall.

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For services such as drainage and sewage,holes in the slabs are left.In bathrooms' areas, the thickness of theslab is reduced so that slopes can be madefor water to flow towards the drainpipes.

Glossary

Sandwich Panel- a panel formed by two sheets with a meterial inside them, e.g,aluminium sheet composite.Skirting- the place where vertical frames and the base meet.Composite Beam- beam which is made of reinforced polymer materialsCornice- a decoration at the meeting of roof and wall system.

Page 20: Log book Week 6- 10

Week 10

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- The plasterboard of the interior of the building is cut to show the insulation and thetimber stut frame.- Next, the stut wall, vapour barrier and flashing are also cut to show the PFC and themansonry wall.- Some part of PFC is visible through the concrete slab.- The concrete mansonry column is cut in some parts to show the flashings.

Glossary

Shear wall- a wall which resist lateral forcesSoft storey- the ground floor of a building which is mostly consist of glass and widespaces.Braced frame- a frame which is braced by diagonal bracingLifecycle- the time of the lasting of a material.Defect- state of being imperfectFascia- the outer surface of a cornice in a roof edge.IEQ- Indoor environmental quality of inside of a building.Galvanic serie- a series of metals which are placed by their reactivity

Page 24: Log book Week 6- 10

Workshop

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Failure records1. my group 200kg with less deflection2. group 1 300kg more deflection3. group 2 400kg

Materials used- 2 types of timber NZ(fine) and AUS(many knots), plywood.Each group get 2 timber and 2 plywood.Tools used - hammer, saw, ruler and nails

Analysis of key concepts

The span of the structure is 900mm. Manybracing can be added inside the rectangular shapestructure. However, some columns used inside thestructure are not carrying loads in the testingcradle as only the ends of the structure istouching the ground. Therefore, timbers used forthe columns are wasted.Plywood is used as the sheer bracing in thestructure as it is good in resisting diagonal forces.However, points of nailing (as shown in thepicture) has created faults and the plywood isdeflected.

joints typePin joints are used. To prevent rotating, 2 nailsare used (as shown in the pictures)

Group 1

Group 2

My Group

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Comparison with working with actual materials and models

In working with actural materials, it is hard to be accurate in cutting the materials.But in scale model making, it is much easier to be accurate.Hammars, saws and nails are used with actural materials. This needs some practiceto be working well. But in scale model making, glue and (knives) which are lessdifficult to handle are used.

Comparison with other

Group 1- plywood used as bracing is wasted asthe load is only carried by the column andbeam. (tension and compression)Group 1- Pin joints are used. In connecting thetimbers, nails are hammered through from thesides.

Plywood used as bracing are not doing anythingwhen the force is applied to the middlecolumn.Therefore, another columns should alsobe included in the load carrying structure.

Group 2- Not many load is carried by the twodiagonal timber. As the load is from the top ofthe two diagonal, it will then go through thecolumn underneath.Group 2- Pin joints are used. To connect thetimbers, plywood chips are used.

Using plywood to connect the structure is theweak of the structure as the plywood will betorn down. Thus, nails should be directlyhammered to the timber.

The point where the load exerts only hasweak plywood and the columns are notdoing anything in this process. Instead ofusing two columns under, only oneshould be used and other timbers shouldbe in the load carrying structure.