# log book - week 3

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Log Book - Week 3 Structural elements Columns, walls(bracing system to prevent a building overturning), beams, strut(compression element), tie(tension element), slab/plate, panels. Column= large strut Tie= cable ties on a bridge Beams- compression & tension. Made from: timber, steel and reinforced concrete Wall- transferring loads vertically Sheer diaphragm- transferring loads horizontally; Cardboard box example with ‘wind’ pushing from the side. Footings & foundation Main purpose is to keep the buildings still and sturdy. Because of lack of strength in the footing system, can force the bottom of a building to crack. Shallow footings- used if soil is stable and the building isn't going to sink in. The weight of the building is transferred from the foundation straight to the ground. Deep foundation is used if the soil isn't stable and may sink under the load. The load is transferred down past the dirt to the bed rock which is extremely sturdy. Mass construction Stone- Pyramids, Greek temples, sections of great wall of china Earth- mud brick walls, Clay- bricks- stable product Concrete- Strong in compression, weak in tension. Good thermal mass meaning they insulate well. Extremely durable(1000’s of years) Masonry Bond: the pattern or arrangement of the units Course: a horizontal row of masonry units Geometry & equilibrium Centre of mass - the point about which an object is balanced. Equilibrium - the state in which an object or structure is at rest. The moment of force is the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. MoF = Force x distance. Measured in Newton-meters(Nm) IMAGE 1: An example of a mass construction made out of IMAGE 5: A basic footing system.

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Log Book - Week 3 Structural elements Columns, walls(bracing system to prevent a building overturning), beams, strut(compression element), tie(tension element), slab/plate, panels.

Column= large strutTie= cable ties on a bridge Beams- compression & tension. Made from: timber, steel and reinforced concreteWall- transferring loads verticallySheer diaphragm- transferring loads horizontally; Cardboard box example with ‘wind’ pushing from the side.Footings & foundation Main purpose is to keep the buildings still and sturdy.Because of lack of strength in the footing system, can force the bottom of a building to crack.Shallow footings- used if soil is stable and the building isn't going to sink in. The weight of the building is transferred from the foundation straight to the ground.Deep foundation is used if the soil isn't stable and may sink under the load. The load is transferred down past the dirt to

the bed rock which is extremely sturdy.""

Mass constructionStone- Pyramids, Greek temples, sections of great wall of china Earth- mud brick walls, Clay- bricks- stable productConcrete- Strong in compression, weak in tension. Good thermal mass meaning they insulate well.Extremely durable(1000’s of years)Masonry Bond: the pattern or arrangement of the unitsCourse: a horizontal row of masonry unitsGeometry & equilibrium Centre of mass - the point about which an object is balanced.Equilibrium - the state in which an object or structure is at rest. The moment of force is the tendency to make an object or a point rotate.MoF = Force x distance. Measured in Newton-meters(Nm)"""""

IMAGE 1: An example of a mass construction made out of

IMAGE 5: A basic footing system.

" "" " " BricksVariety of colours due to the amount of various metals in the bricks.Bricks can be arranged in various ways:Stretcher course

Header course Brick-on-edge course Soldier course Properties of bricks Hard Semi-fragile, can be broken Very low ductility Very low flexibility and plasticityMedium densityPoor conductor of heat and electricity Durable Can be reused

Cheap, however labour costs can be expensive """Concrete Blocks Heavy, need two hands. 11kgsHollowness reduces weight, increases insulation Cement, sand, gravel, waterConstruction of wallsReinforcement rods can be placed inside these blocks. The blocks can then be filled with concrete to increase stability."Properties of concrete blocks"Hard Medium fragility Low ductilityLow flexibility & plasticityMedium densityPoor conductors of heat & electricityDurable Can be recycled but usually crushed down and used in other concrete productsClay bricks vs concrete blocks Concrete shrinks, whereas clay bricks will expand over time.In concrete blocks, the cement paste drys out and loses moisture.Clay bricks on the other hand, absorbs moisture from the air.""

IMAGE 2: The base of a concrete brick wall with reinforcement rods placed in the hollow bricks.

Standard brick size

Stone Types of stone"Igneous stone- formed when molten rock cools down. Examples of igneous stone are granite, basalt and bluestone. Strong under compression Sedimentary stone - formed when pressure is applied to accumulated particles. Eg. Limestone and sandstone. Can be damaged relatively easy.Metamorphic stone - Igneous or sedimentary stone that has been tampered with. ie. Put under high temperatures or subjected to high pressure. Examples are marble and slate.

Monolithic stones - A single stone to make a column or beam. Eg. Easter Island statues.Ashlar - flat faced stones. Eg. Parts of the Great Wall of China.Rubble - stones used as they are found in nature.Properties of stone Hardness - ingneous>metamorphic>sedimentaryFragility depends on shape of stone.Low ductility, impossible to hammer into different shapes.Rigid= log flexibility and plasticityThe density of depends upon the stone. Stones used in construction are about 3 times more dense than water.Poor conductor of heat and electricity.Very durable.Readily recyclable.Cost depends on rarity of the stone."

Week 3 prac - Walk around Melbourne Uni ""Frank Tate pavilion: -The reason to paint the steel isn't only to make it have an aesthetic design but also it protects the steel from rust and weather.-Zinc sheets on the sides of the structure last a long time (about 100 years) however they are expensive. -Can’t rust due to the ‘healing technique’ that the zinc has if it is scratched. If it does get scratched it covers the scratch before oxidation can occur from the air.

"""

IMAGE 3: The strong compressive forces allow this stone structure to be possible.

""Concrete column: -Strong in compression -Main structural supporter.-Made on-site rather than prefabricated simply because it wouldn’t have fit on the back of a truck. Another reason to tell that it’s made on-site is that it had air bubbles in. " """""

Brick building:- The small gap in the structure allows for expansion of the bricks due to change in temperature.-The width of the gap depends upon how large the wall is. It’s usually around 1mm every metre of brick wall.-Gap reinforced from behind with silicone."""""""""""" "

Architecture building:-Lots of long steel beams and concrete allows the cantilever to not fall over. Also a counterweight would most likely be on the opposite side of the building to counter act the load. -The steel mesh on the side of the building prevents sunlight from entering the building. The windows facing the western side have extended mesh to block the hot, western sun.-Some of the small concrete beams may have been prefabricated but the majority would have been made onsite. -As we walked past the incomplete building, we saw that there was electrical cords and other materials hanging under the building. This will be covered up as the structure get completed."

Oval pavilion:-The new oval pavilion combines concrete, timber and steel.-Wood-pressed concrete improves the structure aesthetically.- As with the architecture building, the pavilion also has a cantilever. Architects like using cantilevers to amaze onlookers."" """""

Truss:-The main reason to build truss structures is to reduce the weight of the beam making it more easily able to be lifted and put into place. By reducing the weight it obviously reduces cost as you don't have to use as many materials."""""

Underground carpark:-Large columns are used to hold the above dirt, trees and humans.-The columns are hollow to allow the trees above to spread their roots into the columns. Each column has a corresponding tree above it on South Lawn.-Because the slabs are approximately 9x9 metre, they would've been definitely made onsite."""

IMAGE 4: Diagram of a portal frame

"GlossaryMoment: ‘connections are able to hold their original angle under loading by developing a specified resisting moment, usually by means of plates welded or bolted to the beams flanges and the supporting column.’ (Ching, 2008)Retaining wall: A wall that is designed and constructed to hold back soil or some other substance.Pad footing: A thick slab used as foundation to support the structure."Slab on ground: A slab of concrete that is placed on the ground with supports underneath.Substructure: The foundation and framework of a building.Strip footing: Structures that are designed to transfer