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    Architecture As Mediato

    by Lindsay Keyes Edwards

     Thesis submitted to the faculty Polytechnic Institute and State in partial fulfillment of the requithe degree of:

    Master of Architecture

    Approved

     ______________________________Paul F. Emmons

    Chair

     ______________________________Susan C . Piedmont-Palladino

     ______________________________Marcia Feuerstein

    Date of Defense: 14. DecembeAlexandria, Virginia

    Keywords: mediate, orphanagmending

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    Contents

    List of Images

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    Mending Walls  Introduction

    Mending Walls Essay

    ProcessSite: Nairobi, KenyaSite Plan DevelopmentDevelopment of Outdoor Sp

      Program  Development of Residential  Water Collection  Community Center Courtya Design

    Final Models

      Level 1 Floor Plan  Level 2 Floor Plan  Level 3 Floor Plan  Level 4 Floor Plan  Paneled Wall Facade  Sec tion Perspectives A-D

    Section A  Section B

      Section C  Sec tion D

    Exterior and Interior Perspect

    ReferencesBibliography

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    List of Images

    Author’s photographs of Nairobi from J une 2007.Aerial satellite image of site and author’s photographs of site.Aerial satellite image of site and author’s photographs of site.

     Topography sketch indicating site section cuts.Initial site sections.Development of site plan sketches and models.Development of site plan sketches and models.Development of site plan sketches and models.Development of site plan sketches and models.Exterior schematic perspective at front entry and East elevation of main building.

    Exterior schematic perspective looking North.Project program.Program Elements and schematic perspective looking across football pitch.Sketches and perspectives of residential design process.Study models of residential component design process.Sectional model showing roof construction and of fice/classroom space.Study models of “family” units.Plan and study model of central stair element.Study models of “family” units.ISec tion through main building showing barn and farmer’s market beyond.

    Perspective showing Community Center courtyard garden.Final model image.Final model image.Plan indicating floor level 1 overall.Zoomed in floor level 1.Plan indicating floor level 2 overall.Zoomed in floor level 2.Plan indicating floor level 3 overall.Zoomed in floor level 3.Plan indicating floor level 4 overall.

    Zoomed in floor level 4.

    Page

    7181920212223242526

    27282930313233343536

    374041424344 4546474849

    Page

    50515253545658606263

    6465

    List of Images

    Axon and details of wall construction for East façade paneleSketches of East façade paneled wall and plastering imageSection Perspective Cuts through site A and B.Sec tion Perspective Cuts through site C and D.Section Cut A.Sec tion C ut B.Section Cut C.Sec tion Cut D.Exterior Perspective.Interior Perspective.

    Exterior Perspective.Exterior Perspective.

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    Architecture as MediatorLindsay K. Edwards

    AbstractHaving grown up abroad, the topic architectural mediation has often mpause. The world abounds with diffe

    with today’s globalization, many of ufaced with cultural, soc ial, and a muphysica l differences/conditions. Thisto explore the role of architecture aand seeks designs that transition sucbetween differing entities.

     The project is an orphanage in Nairo The program is comprised of young and the project explores how the str

    they occupy can effectively accomtheir specific needs. Challenges whto be mediated include consideratiscales, one for the child under the aand the other for the caretaker whoproportions. The building also will nereconcile cultural stigmatization andtowards orphans while also providingenvironment. And lastly, the specificneeds of the orphan need to be tendesign and experience within the spneed to convey feelings of security, and hope.

    AcknowledgementsI would first like to thank the gentlemvisited my kindergarten c lass as partparents sharing their profession progyou for letting me take your blueprin

    me and for inspiring me to pursue aras both a c areer and a passion.

    I would like to thank Theo Van Groll fhis guidance and for caring about hthrough and past graduation. You hone of the finest teachers I have eve

     Thank you to my committee. You havery supportive in my endeavor to taissue that has challenged me and cchallenge me. Thank you for your cyour challenges, and for helping mea designer.

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    m e n d i n g w a l  Before I build a wall / I’d ask to know / What I was walling in / orPortion of Me

    by R

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    i f [ 2] b

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    interference.” [12] Even poet Robemakes reference to this dimension “Mending Walls” in the line, “And meven two can pass abreast.” [13] Tportion of Hadrian’s wall had two oof stone and contained a center oHadrian’s Wall is noted as not beingbuilt for defensive purposes, but rat

    movement as evidenced by the nugates and milecastles. Over time, tac tually began to encourage settleto trade bec ause of the boundarycreated. But regardless of the reasinitial construction, or how the spacwall evolved, one thing was clear, distinct space that was within the Rand everything beyond it was outsarchitect explains,

    Walls both act symbolically ato structure civic life, and while theintermingle, they are not necessarisame. As much as ancient and mewere necessary for defense, and ccities resembled fortresses, the walconstitutional role as well. One’s rigreside inside offered the freedom, a

    responsibility, to participate as a cit

    Since Hadrian’s Wall, many oconstructed walls marking politicalhave been constructed aimed at asimilar goals. Well known constructsociety include the Great Wall of Cthe Berlin Wall, and proposed wallsthose for Iraq and those between tand Mexican border, all of which in

    protect, provide surveillance, and define a boundary. It is for this rea“speak loudly” in our soc iety. Interenough, Alberti also understood thfortification walls and notes that sowould even be different if the ruler It demonstrates yet another commwall architecture between the pastdesign in that walls can mitigate posoc ietal extremes depending on thconflict.

    In terms of definition of space for thand exterior, it is interesting to look Van der Rohe’s plan for Landhaus,

    Notes

    [13] Frost.[14] Pullman, 118.[15] Bible. NIV. Proverbs 25:27-28.[16] Klausmeier, 10[17] Klausmeier, 11.

    [18] Klausmeier, 11.[19] Klausmeier, 12.[20] Neumeyer, 240.[21] Pullman, 17.[21] Semper, 127.

    Co nt inued f rom p ag e 13.

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    p r o c e s

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    Property Line

    Site: Nairobi, Kenya

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    Site: Nairobi, Kenya

    1S, 36EElevation 5980 feet

    Set south-west of the city center of Nsite occupies approximately two aclocated on a corner of a main street

    arterial one, Mac haria Road. CurrenEast boundary an impromptu markewhere locales buy and sell producenecessities. The site is strategica lly loarea where districts of the lower, midupper class all come to single point.

    One of the greatest challenges andopportunities of the site is its locationside. The initial design moves, thereffocused on how to divide up and brthe topography.

    Aiming to maintain a close connectbuilding and land, the retaining wa lwalls for buildings in some cases, whmoments take on additional functio

    Opposite Left: Zoomed-in image of s

    Above Left: Aerial view of site ten mwest of Nairobi.

    Surrounding Photos: Images of the si

    N

     To Nairobi CityCenter from Site

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    N

    Site: Nairobi, Kenya

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     Two site sections (A and C) show thesite descending from the East to theis also a more gradual slope occurriNorthwest Corner towards the South

     Therefore the highest point of the extopography is the Northeast portion

     The greatest distance from the highlowest point is 23 feet. The imprompstand is shown in Sec tion C at the Easite.

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    Site Plan Development

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    Series of site plan development. Macomponents include living areas, laroutdoor spaces to house a football a garden, classrooms, main circulatthe boarding area.

     The main focus was how to break upchanges in elevation to c reate ‘liveaterraces while relating to the c ity ana protected environment.

     The series of sketches was developeconcurrently with modeling how terrthe retaining walls create various sp

    N

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    Site Plan Development

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    Continued development and studieand how retaining walls break up thin topography. In order to provide aenvironment, a perimeter wall of varenc loses the property. The building however, takes on the role of the wa

    instances.

     The main East/West component repmain stair that will lead the visitor anfrom the street, through the main buascend to the main terrac e and livinarea. The lower gray bar representsbuilding with the of fices and classrooupper bar represents the stable areacattle. After some shifting of the loca

    residential area (often expressed as “L”), the final location seemed to anthe West side of the site at the highelooking towards the city.

    N

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    Development of Outdoor Spac

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    Part of the site plan development folocating and sculpting outdoor spacspaces are almost equally occupiedas much as the indoor spaces due televation resulting in minimal mosquand pleasant temperatures.

     The Pitch The size and location of the field is toits importance to the children. It is harea makes up 1/2 the size of a full spitch. The area is directly accessibleing quarters and the hill side residenas stadium seating.

     The Garden

    Outside of the teaching area is the where herbs and vegetables are groorphanage.

     The PastureA single ‘african’ cow produces in afrom 20-40 liters of milk per day. If theach were allocated 2 servings of m

    two cows could produce the amouneeded. Any ac cess milk producedsold in the market.

     Two cows determines a spatial needand care for the animals. This helpethird main green space, the pasture

    Opposite Left: Schematic perspectiventry into orphanage.

    Upper Left: Schematic perspective o

    and pitch.

    Left:East elevation of main building pitch.

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    1 Football Pitch

    8 Classrooms

    1 Infirmary

    1 CommunityCenter

    96 Children

    8 Care Takers

    20 Staff 

    2 Cows

    Program

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     The following represents the determprogram to be housed on the two a

     The public area (of fices, classroomsinfirmary, common spaces, and the center) are located on the East sidesite to reinforce the buffer between

    and the orphans. The North portion is reserved for the chickens and cowprovide the children with eggs and ac commodations on site are only focaretakers. Their housing is integratechildren on the West side of the site.

    Opposite Left: Determined programmrequirements.

    Left: Schematic perspective, view froarea across pitch looking North.

    12 Chickens

    4 Vegetable

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    Development of Residential Are

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    Schematic sketches of early buildingresearch.

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    Development of Residential Are

    The key to the residences isto creat

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     The key to the residences is to creata family group, and then a larger fabeyond the immediate family groupresidence c onsists of five rooms, eacfour children. The caretaker’s room connec ted to the children’s rooms.

    outdoor space and a shared bathroto each ‘family’. This outdoor spaceused to for playing games and eatin

    A similar family is located above eacunit. The two act in a sense of extenthey are close, but not as close to imHowever, they share a few items, instair, and the water collection systemcollection is from the two roofs of the

    family and the immediate family. Thare able to rinse their feet or water thusing this water although the main pmaintain the rooftop vegetable gar

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    Water Collection

     The central stair ac ts as the main ac

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    to the elements of the orphanage uthe children. It also collects and storwater. The water fills the storage tanis rec irculated to the roof terrac es inwater the vegetable gardens.

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    Community Center Courtyard

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    d e s i g

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    Final Models

    Opposite Left: Bird’s eye view from E

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    Left:Front facade of orphanage at eshowing panel walled system, the bathe East side, and the residential arebeyond. The paneled wall system abring the material scale to more of alevel.

    Community integration is encouragefarmer’s market and the connec tedcenter with shared courtyard.

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    61

    Level 1 Floor PlanMain Building (East Building)

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    4

    6

    3

    5

    10

    9

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    Entry

    Reception Area

    Community Center

    Community Center Courtyard

     Typical Orphanage Of fice

    Farmer’s Market Truck Stall

    Infirmary

    Main Stair

    Entrance Community Center

    Kitchen

    Level 1

     The primary functions housed on the

    the main building pertain to c reatingbetween soc iety and the children. phanage of fices are held as well as ty center for the public. Ac cess beylevel is limited, creating a secure envthe children

     This creates a sense of security and apublic space and private space.

    In order to accommodate the curvethe East side of the site, a series of frprecast concrete walls were designemake up the East Facade. The wallanchored to the concrete floor to erod. The fac ade is a series of rec essis here that the children are able to phand prints into the wall.

    2

    1

    7

    5

    10’

    30’

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    21

    10

    Level 2 Floor PlanMain Building (East Building)

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    7

    6

    8

    5

    4

    3

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    Barn

    Farmer’s Market Above

    Double Height of Entry Below

    Exterior Dining Area

    Exterior Breezeway/Hallway

    Gymnasium

    Interior Courtyard Below

    Roof Community Center Below

    Stair Cistern

    Play Pump

    Level 2

     The primary functions housed in the

    of the main building pertain to the dtions of the c hildren. The second levmain football pitch and leads to houClassrooms, dining, and recreation acommodated on this level. In a senno need for the child to go to the firday to day basis unless leaving the p

     This creates a sense of security and apublic space and private space.

          N

    10’

    30’

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    10’

    30’

    1 B

    Level 3 Floor PlanFamily Units - Residential (West Side o

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    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    Barn

    Farmer’s Market Above

    Double Height of Entry Below

    Exterior Dining Area

    Exterior Breezeway/Hallway

    Gymnasium

    Interior Courtyard Below

    Roof Community Center Below

    Stair Cistern

    Play Pump

    Level 3

     The first level of the housing is four fe

    than that of the football pitch and uof the main building. The separationarea and the residential area to helconcept of the family unit.

          N

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    10’

    30’

    1 Typical Room

    Level 4 Floor PlanFamily Units - Residential (West Side o

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    Level 4

     The upper level of the residential horemaining children. Organized in th

    ner, the units are rotated square to tment of the footba ll pitch and main

     This helps differentiate again, each ifamily unit.

    1

    2

    3

    4

     Typical Room

    Caretaker’s Room

    Exterior Space

    Access Stair to Level 4

    2

    3

    1

    4

          N

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    Paneled Wall Facade

    My childhood was spent moving oftoften sought to find a way to rememmy experience in a particular placeI h d h Alth h th

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    I had numerous homes. Although thnot comparable to the feelings of athe desire to return to a different staone’s life is similiar. Pre-cast reinforc

    with recessed areas that will receivewhere the children’s hands are impr

     The family structure of the residentiaexpressed. This also a llows for the chhave an experience they can reconand recollect. The recesses would b

     The wall is a void without the additioorphans, and the wall progresses anto the community by not hiding the

    while still protecting them. The idea a photograph of my own hand beinagainst a wall to measure the dimenblock which made up the wall. The as a barrier, but represents the simulbeyond.

     The process might follow along the lthe location is selected together by and the new child, they then cast to

    imprint together, and so the wa ll grogrows with the coming and going ofthe same time.

     The structure of the wall is likened toas well. Each panel, 10’ x 20’ is L-shand therefore is able to stand on its anchor bolted to the concrete slab v

     This is a consistent construction qualthroughout the design of the orphan

    building provides the backbone andthe harsh reality of life, but still enablchildern to be individuals.

    Section Perspective A - Cut East - West showingbarn. A

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    Section Perspective B - Cut East - West showing

    classrooms on upper level and of fices andfarmers market on lower level. B

    Section Perspective C - Cut East - Wmain entire site showing living quarteside of site and main building.

    C

    Section Perspectives A-D

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    Section Perspective D - Cut East - W

    main entire site showing upper livingWest side of site, main building, and center.D

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    Section AEast - WestShowing the far perimeter wall, the pthe barn at the Northern side of the s

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    Section BEast - WestShowing the perimeter wall, the grazthe interior corridor, the classroom olevel, storage on the lower level andmarket area to the East.

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    Section CEast - West

    Showing the two levels of the residefootball pitch, the double height foymarket trellis is visible beyond.

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    Section DEast - WestShowing the two levels of residencesball pitch, the outdoor corridor/breeclassrooms on the upper level, of ficelower level, the shared courtyard, an

    munity center followed by the main

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    Exterior and Interior Perspective

    Opposite Left: Perspective at Front E

     The paneled wall itself is compensatcurved site line, an invisible line. The

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    ,openings are oriented to the north, aenter from the south, therefore, the

    more opaque to the visitor, and moof the local neighborhood, this is anfunction of the design of the buildingbreak down the stigma assoc iated was it is carried in Africa.

    Left: Perspective in Foyer

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    Exterior and Interior Perspective

    Opposite Left: Perspective up Ma in S

    Here, another piece of architecture bridging differences. The stair is des

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    meet the dimensions of the c hild onthe adult on the right. It is key that t

    that leads to the private area of theis seen bringing together the orphancaretaker.

    Left: Perspective Looking South at Pl

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    r e f e r e n c e s

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