livestock markets 2003

Livestock Markets 2003 Billion Per Cap Price Export lbs lbs $/cwt % Beef 26.2 64.8 84.69 9.6 Pork 20.0 51.8 39.45 8.6 Broilers 32.7 81.4 62.00 15.1 Turkeys 5.7 17.4 62.10 8.5

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Livestock Markets 2003. BillionPer CapPriceExport lbslbs$/cwt% Beef26.264.884.699.6 Pork20.051.839.458.6 Broilers32.781.462.0015.1 Turkeys5.717.462.108.5. Livestock Marketing. When to sell Weight, grade, costs What to sell Live or carcass Grade, production - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Livestock Markets 2003

Livestock Markets 2003Billion Per Cap Price Exportlbs lbs $/cwt %

Beef 26.2 64.8 84.69 9.6Pork 20.0 51.8 39.45 8.6Broilers 32.7 81.4 62.00 15.1Turkeys 5.7 17.4 62.10 8.5

Page 2: Livestock Markets 2003

Livestock Marketing When to sell

• Weight, grade, costs What to sell

• Live or carcass• Grade, production

Where to sell• Type of market• Location

Page 3: Livestock Markets 2003

When to sell Classic production function

• MC=MR Costs increase beyond optimal selling weight

• Costs are a function of» Genetic potential» Cost of diet» Opportunity costs of future production

Page 4: Livestock Markets 2003

When to sell Marginal Revenue (Prices) Uncertain about price if you wait to sell (price trends) Function of weight and days on feed

• Typically animals increase the portion of fat relative to muscle produced as they get heavier.

• There is an optimal weight range» Discounts if too light or too heavy

• Optimal degree of “finish”» Different for hogs versus cattle» Both can be too fat

Page 5: Livestock Markets 2003

When to sell Optimal is still MC=MR

• MC is increasing at increasing rate and is function of feed prices

• MR increases then decreases due to premiums and discounts associated with grades

» Is also a function of seasonal price trends that could be higher or lower

Page 6: Livestock Markets 2003

Market Hog CalculatorCurrent hog price ($/cwt) HP $47.95Expected added wt AW 15Cost of added wt ($/lb) AC $0.37Expected final wt FW 260Price discount ($/cwt) PD ($0.75)Expected price change PC $0.00 AW*HP – (AW*AC) – (FW*PD) + (FW*PC)Expected return to selling later ($0.27)

Page 7: Livestock Markets 2003

Seasonal Price Index for Iowa Fed Cattle and Hogs










Mar. Apr.May







Cattle Hogs

Page 8: Livestock Markets 2003

Where to sell Terminal markets have declined Auction markets important when assembly is

needed• Feeder cattle and cull cows• Growing interest in fed cattle in fringe areas

Direct sales• Fed cattle and hogs• Feeder pigs• Growing in feeder cattle where source verification is


Page 9: Livestock Markets 2003

Feeder cattle sales Live weight sales

• Various weight classes Auction is major market

• Assembly function important Video auctions Direct trade Premium paid for

• Large uniform lots• Certification/verification ??????

Page 10: Livestock Markets 2003

Feeder pig sales Price/head or live weight

• 40-60 pound classes• Weaned pigs (10-12 pounds)

Primarily direct trade• Rapidly declining auctions• Health and stress concerns

Premiums for• Large uniform, single source• Genetic history

Page 11: Livestock Markets 2003

What to sell Live weight

• One average price for all live pounds• Negotiated price before delivery• Weighing conditions important• Mud, shrink (fill, time, stress)• Was most common for hogs • Still common in large cattle feedlots, less in Iowa• Used for feeder cattle and feeder pigs

Page 12: Livestock Markets 2003

What to sell Carcass weight

• One average price for all carcass pounds• Negotiated price before delivery• Dressing percent (also called yield)• Farmer stands risk of trimming and

condemnation• Common for fed cattle in Midwest

Page 13: Livestock Markets 2003

What to sell Dressing percent

• DP = carcass weight / live weight• DP hogs approximately 73-76%• DP cattle approximately 61-64%

DP impacted by:• Weighing conditions• Shrink

Page 14: Livestock Markets 2003

What to sell Value-based marketing

• Each carcass evaluated and priced• Premiums and discounts determined ahead of delivery• Base price may be negotiated or come from formula • Carcasses are graded and values assigned• Farmer stands grading risk• Different buyers have different systems• Nearly all hogs• Increasingly popular for fed cattle

Page 15: Livestock Markets 2003

Value-based Hog Marketing Two factors impact premiums Carcass weight and leanness

• Fixed premiums (known dollar amount)• Relative premiums (percent adjustment)• Not USDA graded

» Packer employee measures» Objective measures

Fat-O-Meter, ruler, ultra-sound

Page 16: Livestock Markets 2003

Comparing bidsPrice in appropriate $/cwt ABBid Price (live) $44.50---Bid Price (carcass) ---$59.50Lean premium ---+1.25Sort discount ----.70Dressing percentage 74.574.5Adjusted to live 44.5044.73Transportation -.85-.35Net farm gate price $43.65$44.38

Page 17: Livestock Markets 2003

Value-Based Cattle MarketingValue-Based Cattle MarketingThree factor impact premiums

1. Carcass Weights2. Quality Grade Distribution (USDA Grader)

Based on marbling, proxy for eating experience3. Yield Grade Distribution (USDA Grader)

Based on lean meat yield4. Other specs:

Product safety & quality assuranceAcceptable colorYouthfulness

Page 18: Livestock Markets 2003

Value-Based Cattle MarketingValue-Based Cattle Marketing

Common Ground for Targets1. Carcass Weights 550 - 950 lbs

2. Quality Grade > Se+ or > Ch0

3. Yield Grade 1’s and 2’s

Page 19: Livestock Markets 2003

Where are the Grid Rewards & Discounts?Where are the Grid Rewards & Discounts?

Angus America (Excel) Premiums:

• Prime: $6 / cwt• Certified Angus:$3 / cwt• Sterling Silver: $3 / cwt• Angus Pride: $.50/cwt• Yield Grade 1: $5 / cwt (Ch &

better)• Yield Grade 2: $3 / cwt (Ch &


Discounts:• Selects, No Rolls, Standards (Mkt

Boxed Beef Prior, -$10 off Select, -$30)

• Off Grades (-$35)• Yield Grade 4s & 5s (-$15, -$25)• Heavy(950-999), Extra Heavy

(1000up), Light (500-550) & Extra Light (500 down) Carcasses (-$15, -$30, -$15, -$35)

Page 20: Livestock Markets 2003

Quality Yield GradeGrade 1 2 3 4 & 5Prime +$$$$$ +$$$$ +$$$ -$$Choice+ and Choiceo +$$$ +$$$ +$$ -$$Choice- +$$$ +$$ Base -$$$Select -$ -$$ -$$$ -$$$$Standard -$$$$ -$$$$ -$$$$ -$$$$Out Cattle -$$$$$ -$$$$$ -$$$$$ -$$$$$

Carcass Merit Grid and Premium TrendsCarcass Merit Grid and Premium Trends

Page 21: Livestock Markets 2003

Comparing BidsPrice in appropriate $/cwt ABBase bid price 112.00 111.00

Prime 3%--- +6.00Top 2/3 Ch 45%--- +3.50Select 30%--- -8.00Yield 1&2 60%--- +2.50Off weight 3%--- -15.00

Transportation -.65 -1.25Net farm gate price 110.35 110.16Bid A is a straight in the meat bid, Bid B is a valued-based bid.

Page 22: Livestock Markets 2003

Summary When to sell is complicated

• Perishable, non-storable• Rising cost and changing value

What to sell is complicated• Understanding shrink• Know what is under the hide

Where to sell• Transportation• Buyer programs• Number of bidders