literature reviews, apa style & annotated bibliographies

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Literature Reviews, APA Style & Annotated Bibliographies. Martha Stephenson UW-Whitewater. Literature Review. The purpose is to critically analyze a segment of a published body of knowledge. Provides a summary of previous research on a topic. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


APA Style & Annotated Bibliographies

Literature Reviews, APA Style & Annotated BibliographiesMartha StephensonUW-WhitewaterLiterature ReviewCritically analyzes a part of a published body of knowledge.Provides a summary of previous research on a topic.Discusses published information relevant to a particular topic, issue, or theory, sometimes within a certain time period. Provides a preface to and rationale for engaging in research or is a self-contained unit.Is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations.

Where to Find Journal ArticlesIndexes and databasesResearch@UWWReference lists, bibliographies, footnotes, etc.Internet

How to Find Journal ArticlesOriginal searchesLook up citations found in other sourcesFollow citation trail in databases, such as:Science Citation IndexScienceDirectSociological AbstractsGoogle Scholar

Write the Literature ReviewIntroductionIdentifies topic.Indicates trends, gaps, or conflicts.Lists reasons for the literature review.Explains criteria used, organization of the review, and scope.BodyGroups literature by commonalities such as quantitative v. qualitative, conclusions, purpose, chronology, etc. Summarizes each work according to its importance in the literature. ConclusionSummarizes major contributions.Points out major gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and issues pertinent to future study.Provides understanding of the relationship between the review topic and a larger area of study.

Read More About Lit ReviewsHow to Do a Literature Review? F.D. Bluford Library, NC A&T State University Fluency & Quantitative Analysis: Literature Review - Washington & Lee University Reviews Online Writing Lab at Purdue Review of Literature - The Writing Center, UW-Madison a Literature Review University Library, UC Santa Cruz Diagram of Research Process

APA Style ReferencesDocuments research and provides the data necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Enables finding and using sources, so the data must be correct and complete.Punctuation and element order are also important parts Establishes your credibility by providing accurate references.Contains elements in each entry that are required for unique identification. If unsure, provide more information rather than less.

At a minimum, include:AuthorTitleDatePublication InformationHelpPublication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. The Librarys Citing References: APA Style guideOnline sources like those from OWL, UW-Madisons Writing Center and the APA blogIf there is no specific citation guidance in the Manual either, choose the most similar example and follow that format. Add additional information if needed to identify your source.

References ListDouble space..5 hanging indent.Alphabetical order by first element. List works by the same author in chronological order. List works by the same author in one year alphabetically and add a letter after the year. This os also done in the parenthetical citation.Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time, such as in a wiki.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI assigned, paginated by issue, printLight, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page.Journal Article from a Library Database-Whats wrong?Moon, T. R., & Brighton, C. M. (2008). Primary Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness. Journal For The Education Of The Gifted, 31(4), 447-480.

Moon, T. R., & Brighton, C. M. (2008). Primary teachers' conceptions of giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 31(4), 447-480. Retrieved from

Whats wrong?Swaray, R. (2011). Commodity buffer stock redux: The role of International Cocoa Organization in prices and incomes. Journal Of Policy Modeling, 33(3), 361-369. DOI:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2011.03.002

Swaray, R. (2011). Commodity buffer stock redux: The role of International Cocoa Organization in prices and incomes. Journal of Policy Modeling, 33(3), 361-369. doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2011.03.002

Whats Wrong?MCCLUSKEY, EMILY. (2010). Chocolate with a conscience. Choice (0009-496X), 14-16. Web. 6/1/2012.

McCluskey, E. (2010 Dec). Chocolate with a conscience. Choice, 14-16. Retrieved from

Whats Wrong?ERIK, E. (2007, August). H.I.V. Patients Anxious as Support Programs Cut Back. New York Times (0362-4331). p. 12. Retrieved from login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=28215647&login.asp&site=ehost-live

Erik, E. (2007, August 1). H.I.V. Patients Anxious as Support Programs Cut Back. New York Times. p. 12. Retrieved from Wrong?Clemons, T. L., & National Research Center on the Gifted and, T. (2008). Underachieving Gifted Students: A Social Cognitive Model. National Research Center On The Gifted And Talented,

Clemons, T. L., & National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (2008). Underachieving gifted students: A social cognitive model. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED505382)Parenthetical In-Text CitationsInclude the author's last name, if not written in the text, and the date. Always give page numbers for quotations (section 6.03). When paraphrasing, the Manual encourages inclusion of a page number (section 6.04).

(Chaitin, 2006, p. 112)Creating a Parenthetical CitationSillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from & Schutte, 2006, p. 40)

On Compiling an Annotated BibliographyPlan your research efficiently.Be organized, consistent, accurate, thorough, and meticulous.Use UW Request and Interlibrary Loan (ILL). Find all relevant articles, not just those online or in print at the Andersen Library. Set the overall organization and content of each major section.

Three Ways of Organizing Entries: Alphabetically by authorUsed least often.Chronologically by date of publicationUse when research has developed in stages, orUse when research generally does not focus on particular works or topics.Topically by subjectUse when an author has written in several genres, or Use when scholarship generally focuses on individual works or distinct topics. Keep it simple, as complicated breakdowns make it difficult to use.Consult your mentor for your requirements

Three Major Tasks:Examine thoroughly the main articlesReread all the primary texts and the major studies. Compile a list of themes.Decide what types of works you will includeJournal articles (for this project)Define your limits, only then is comprehensiveness possible.Include all articles that are wholly or mostly about your topic, even those that seem wrong, outrageous, or out of date. Dont omit an article because you were not able to get and read it. Include the citation and carefully distinguish whether you have been unable to examine, locate or verify the work.Know your style manual

Three Major Tasks for Compiling Entries:Identifying scholarly articlesMaintain a record of resources you have searched. Record and examine even vague, ambiguous, or uninformative articles that may discuss your topic. Obtaining the journal articlesFind them in our print or online library collections.Find them on the Internet (try Google Scholar).Order Interlibrary Loan through ILLiad.Writing the entriesLearn your citation style.Establish your subject terms.

What Kind of Annotations?TypeParaphraseUses the point of view of the item it abstracts.Provides a miniaturized transcription following the articles order of ideas. CommentarySpeaks from its own, usually disinterested perspective about the major concerns of the article cited and its approach to it.May describe the author's argument; faithful reproduction is not needed. Is concerned with what it is about rather than in what it says.You serve your reader as an expert indexer. SummaryEdits, redacts, or organizes in a coherent shorter form. Transcribes and reduces the scale of the article. Needs verbal compression but in comparison to commentary, summary is more spacious and leisured. Is proportionally lengthy (longer articles=longer abstracts).

What Kind of Annotations?TypeDescriptiveMain purpose or idea of the work.Contents of the work.Authors conclusions.Intended audience.Authors research methods.Special features of the work such as illustrations, maps, tables, etc.No value judgments.CriticalAuthors bias or tone.Authors qualifications for writing the work.Accuracy of the information in the source.Limitations or significant omissions.Contribution to the literature of the subject.Comparison with other works on the topic.Value judgments.Conclusions or recommendations.Provide both a descriptive and critical evaluation of the source.Descriptive Anno


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