literary terms. irony a contradiction between what happens and what is expected. situational irony...

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  • Slide 1
  • Literary Terms
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  • Irony A contradiction between what happens and what is expected. Situational irony occurs when an unexpected contradiction occurs with a character or situation, such as a fire station burning. Verbal irony occurs when something contradictory is said (that was as pleasant as a root canal). Dramatic irony occurs when the audience is aware of the contradiction but the speaker is not (In the Lion King, Simba thinks he is responsible for his fathers death but the audience knows its Scar).
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  • Point of View The perspective from which a story is told 1 st person told by a character who uses the pronoun I 3 rd person is told by a narrator that uses the pronouns he and she Limited 3 rd Person: the narrator relates the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character Omniscient 3 rd Person: the narrator tells what each character thinks and feels
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  • 1 st Person Point of View From The Hunger Games I spread out my fingers, and the dark berries glisten in the sun. I give Peetas hand one last squeeze as a signal, as a good-bye, and we begin counting.
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  • Omniscient 3 rd Person Point of View John laughed hollowly. Youre joking, he said, wondering how on earth he would ever get over this. Veronica shook her head slowly. Her heart was breaking at having to tell him this news. John stood up and banged his fist against the wall, hard, once, but that did nothing to disperse the fury coursing through him. He still couldnt believe it. Ill have to leave now, he said, thinking that he couldnt bear to stay there another moment. Veronica nodded slowly. He was upset now, but she knew he'd get over it.
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  • Limited 3 rd Person Point of View From Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone: Only a person who wanted to find the Stone -- find it, but not use it -- would be able to get it. That is one of my more brilliant ideas. And between you and me, that is saying something.
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  • Protagonist The main character in a literary work. Usually a person, but it can be an animal.
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  • Antagonist A character, or force, that is in conflict with the main character, or protagonist. Voldemort in Harry Potter series
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  • Characterization The act of creating and developing a character
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  • Flat character One-sided and often stereotypical Example: Hagrid or Professor McGonagall in Harry Potter series
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  • Round character A fully developed character that often displays many traits, such as faults and virtues. Harry Potter, Katniss, Ponyboy
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  • Unreliable Narrator A narrator who cant be trusted, either from ignorance or self-interest. This narrator speaks with bias, makes mistakes, or even lies. Examples: children and madmen Huck in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
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  • Oxymoron Two opposite or contradictory works linked together Examples: Jumbo shrimp, living dead, dark light
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  • Theme The central message or purpose in a literary work. It can be expressed as a generalization about life. Theme can be stated directly or indirectly.
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  • Imagery The descriptive words or phrases a writer uses to represent persons, objects, actions, feelings, and ideas to appeal to the five senses (sight, sound, smell, taste & touch). Types of imagery: light, dark,, color, animal The tornado twisted through the town hurling hail and rain.
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  • Simile: A comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words LIKE or AS. He was as tall as a giant. Metaphor: A comparison of two unlike things not using like or as. My uncle is a giant.
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  • Idiom An accepted phrase or expression having a meaning different from the literal. He gets up with the chickens.
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  • Alliteration Words grouped together with the same beginning sounds Slimy, slithering snakes
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  • Allusion A reference to a literary, mythological, or historical person, place or thing. Did you see that Hercules move he made?
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  • Personification Writing that gives animals, inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics. The spider waits and wonders for the unsuspecting fly.
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  • Foreshadowing The use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that have yet to come. Sam wished he could rid himself of the sick feeling in his gut that told him something terrible was going to happen, and happen soon.
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  • Onomatopoeia Words that sound like their meaning: Hiss, plop, bang
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  • Hyperbole A deliberate, extravagant and often outrageous exaggeration; may be used for either serious or comic effect. I tried a thousand times. I nearly died laughing.
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  • Symbolism The use of symbols or objects to represent certain elements in a literary work. Harry Potters scar symbolizes a badge of honor for surviving Voldemorts attack.
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  • Mood The atmosphere or feeling created in a reader by a literary work. Mood shifts can occur in the literary work.
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  • Tone The writers attitude or feeling toward a person, a thing, a place, an event or situation. Tone can be light-hearted, serious, optimistic.
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  • Diction The writer or speakers word choice. Formal or informal Denotation: the dictionary meaning Connotation: the emotional meaning of a word; it can be positive or negative Example: a lake is an inland body of water represents denotation; a vacation spot represents connotation
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  • Genre A type of literature 3 major genres: poetry, prose, drama
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  • Aphorism An original thought, spoken or written in a concise and memorable form Also associated with maxim, adage, proverb Examples: "Your children need your presence more than your presents." (Jesse Jackson) "The first rule of Fight Club is--you do not talk about Fight Club." (Brad Pitt as Tyler Durden, Fight Club)
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  • Epigram A brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement Example of poetic aphorism: Little strokes Fell great oaks. Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin Here lies my wife: here let her lie! Now she's at rest and so am I. John DrydenJohn Dryden