Literary movements

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notes on empiricism, rationalism, romanticism, and transcendentalism

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<ul><li> 1. Philosophical and Literary MovementsEuropean and American changes inperspective</li></ul> <p> 2. EmpiricismAccording to the ideas of empiricism, experienceis the only source of our knowledge. None ofus can truly know anything except through ourown senses. This was the idea of the tabularasa, that each of us is born as a blank slatewaiting to be affected by the experiences weperceive through our own senses. Empiricismdenies any innate knowledge, any knowledgeunrelated to experience. 3. John Locke 16321704Father of Empiricism 4. Rationalism 1650-1800 Reason is the source of all knowledge. NOT Acceptance of authority Empiricism Spiritual revelationThe Founding Fathers of the U.S. were rationalists.The Declaration of Independence and theConstitution were planned, logical documents.Washington, D.C. was a rationally planned city. 5. Rationalists at Work 6. The Age of Enlightenment The era when Rationalism was strongest. The time when doctrines (divine right of kings)and institutions (monarchy, the church) wereviewed from the point of view of Rationalism. Led to a change in assumptions about thosedoctrines and institutions. 7. Utilitarianism The right act or policy was that which wouldcause "the greatest good for the greatest numberof people", also known as "the greatesthappiness principle", or the principle of utility. Hewrote in The Principles of Morals and Legislation: Nature has placed mankind under thegovernance of two sovereign masters, pain andpleasure. It is for them alone to point out whatwe ought to do, as well as to determine what weshall do." 8. Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832advocate of Utilitarianism 9. The Romantic Movement late 18th C. to late 19th C. Stressed strong emotions and imagination Freedom from artistic correctness Rebellion against social conventions (rules) 10. Lord Byrontossing aside social conventions 11. Transcendentalism Began with Emersons essay Nature in 1836 Knowledge is derived from intuitivesources, NOT from experience. Knowledge is from somewhere within us thatis beyond personal experience. Stressed the human connection with thenatural world Died out as a movement in the late 19th C., butis it something we still live with? 12. Add to your Timeline: 1600 William Shakespeare 1650 Anne Bradstreets poetry published 1680 - Edward Taylor poetry 1692 Salem witch trials 1776 Declaration of Independence 1789 French Revolution</p>

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