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  • 1. Resistance of Anemonefish to the Sea Anemone: Innate or Acquired through Acclimation Behavior? Based on the following paper by Elliot and Mariscal: Acclimation or Innate Protection of Anemonefishes to Sea Anemones?

2. www. touregypt.net 3. Background: Symbiotic Relationship

  • Sea anemone & anemonefish relationship
  • Big Question: How can anemonefish swim freely among the stinging tentacles of the sea anemone?

www.biodiversity.uno.edu 4. Background: Controversy, Innate or Acquired Resistance?

  • Innate
  • versus
  • Acclimation behavior

www.biodiversity.uno.edu OR, could it be a combination??? 5. Methods: Elliott & Mariscals Expts

  • Expt 1:Are there variations in protection amongst species and developmental stages of anemonefish?
  • How did they test?Forced-contact tests
  • *72 different species combinations
  • *Fish eggs, larvae and juveniles

6. Methods: Expts continued

  • Expt 2 : Innate protection from anemones?
  • How did they test?Forced-contact tests
  • *Tested 3 species of anemones with 3 species of NAVE anemonefish

A. clarkii 7. Methods: Expts continued

  • Expt 3: Does mucus coat of associated and nave anemonefish resemble mucus of anemone?
  • How did they test?Immunological techniques
  • *ELISA test- compared antigens of anemone mucus with mucus coat of nave and associatedA.clarkii

8. Results: Experiment 1 9. Results: Expt 1 continued

  • Clownfish- generalist; protected from wide variety of anemones
  • P. Biaculeatus-specialist; resistant only to its host anemone

A. Percula(clownfish ) P. Biaculeatus 10. Results: Experiment 2 Naturalhost: normally found together in the wild Unnatural : do not normally associate in the wild 11. Results: Expt 2 continued 13 13 17 30 Total 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 S.Haddoni M.doreensis A.perideraion 5 0 5 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 5 H.Crispa S.Haddoni M.Doreensis A.ocellaris 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 3 4 3 3 5 H.Crispa S.Haddoni M.Doreensis A.clarkii # fish escaping # fish adhering # fish protected # fish tested Anemone species tested Fish species 12. Results: Experiment 3 Associated fish have more anemone antigens on their mucus coat relative to nave fish 13. Conclusions

  • Expt 1: Variation in protection; generalist versus specialist species of fish
  • Expt 2: Nave individuals of anemonefish were innately protected from natural host
  • Expt 3: Associated fish chemically camouflage themselves during acclimation behavior

14. Discussion

  • NaveA. clarkiido not produce mucus coat similar to anemone, but after associating/acclimation they have similar antigens
  • Innate protection demonstrated in Expt 2:
    • Observations: fish performed acclimation behavior, even when not initially stung (innately protected)
    • Acclimation may provide further protection

15. Critiques & Further Studies

  • FURTHER STUDIES
  • Interspecific variation in protection of anemonefish-evolution
  • Isolate specific biochemical compounds in mucus that cause protection
  • Mutagenesisinnately protected fish
  • CRITIQUES
  • Eggs were in close proximity to anemones before forced-contact tests
  • Use larger sample size for Expt 2

16. References

  • 1. Elliott J.K., Mariscal R.N., and K.H. Roux. 1994. Do anemonefishes use molecular mimicry to avoid being stung by host anemones? J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 179: 99-113.
  • 2. Elliott J.K., and R.N. Mariscal. 1997. Acclimation or Innate Protection of Anemonefishes. Copeia. 2: 284-289.
  • 3. Elliott J.K., and R.N. Mariscal. 1997. Ontogenetic and interspecific variation in the protection of anemonefishes from sea anemones. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 208: 57-72
  • 4. Mebs, D. 1994. Anemonefish symbiosis: vulnerability and resistance of fish to the toxin of the sea anemone. Toxicon. 32: 1059-1068.
  • Pictures found atwww.touregypt.netandwww.biodiversity.uno.edu